Malaysian International Tribology Conference 2015 > Proceedings  Indexed by: 

Proceedings of Malaysian International Tribology Conference 2015


Pages 1-328 (November 2015)

Malaysian Tribology Society


ISBN: 978-967-13625-0-1 (online)


This ebook is a compilation of papers presented at the Malaysian International Tribology Conference 2015 (MITC2015) - Penang, Malaysia on 16 ~ 17 November 2015.

Keynote Speeches  |  Invited Talks

Theme 1: Bearing Design and Technology  |  Theme 2: Biotribology  |  Theme 3: Contact Mechanics  |  Theme 4: Friction and Wear

Theme 5: Fuels, Lubricants and Lubrication  |  Theme 6: Green Tribology  |  Theme 7: Surface, Coatings and Interface

Front Cover
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Pages i-ii

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Editorial Board

Page iii

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Pages iv-v

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Table of Contents

Pages vi-xvii

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Keynote Speeches
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Hard thin film coatings deposited by Cathodic Arc Physical Vapor Deposition technique.
Page 1
R.J. Talib, M.F. Fazira, H.M. Ariff
PDF (140 KB)


Physical vapor deposition technique is used to deposit hard and wear resistant thin film of coating material into the substrate surface without changing the substrate properties; commonly referred as thin films. Hard thin film coatings are employed to enhance the surface characteristics of the substrates such as hardness, surface roughness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance without changing the bulk properties of the substrates. Demands for transition metal nitrides such as TiCN, TiCrN, TiAlN, CrAlN synthesized by physical vapor deposition (PVD) as hard film coatings are increasing rapidly due to their superior mechanical, tribological, and corrosion characteristics, thus increasing the components life and productivity of the production. These metal nitride coatings are used to improve friction, wear and life of cutting tools, mould and dies, machine elements, automotive components. Type of coating applied on the substrate depends on the applications of that component. Physical vapor deposition uses physical forces to deposit a pure source material which is gasified via evaporation. Physical vapor deposition is performed at relatively low temperature (300° to 600°C) as compared to chemical vapor deposition operating at a temperature of 1000°C. The stoichoimetric composition of the film arises from reactive gas absorption by growing films, reactive collision between gas molecules and vapour species emitted from the evaporation source, and surface reaction between gas molecules and condensed films. Quality of thin film coating produced on the substrate depends on; (i) surface preparation such as degreasing and polishing, surface pre-cleaning such as ultra-sonic and plasma sputtered etching, (ii), deposition parameters such as substrate temperature, chamber pressure, current, reactive and working gas flow rate, negative bias voltage, and (iii) target shape, geometry of the chamber, and the position of the substrate relative to the target. Though the physical vapor deposition has been used widely and many researches have been conducted, there are some opportunities in developing high quality in hard thin film coating. These include (i) optimizing the coating process parameters using Taguchi or Design expert method, (ii) determining significant effect of coating process parameter on the mechanical and tribological properties, (iii) determining residual stress in thin film coating, (iv) establishing failure mechanism on different type of coating materials, (v) developing life predicting model. In this keynote lecture, results of some works in depositing hard thin film of TiN, TiZrN, TiCN, TiAlN on high speed steel and tungsten carbide substrates will be presented and discussed. The tool life and wear mechanism of coated-drill during drilling and coated-cutting tool insert during turning will also be presented and discussed. The characterization tools employed in this study include (i) x-ray photo electron spectroscope, (ii) x-ray diffraction, (iii) pin-on-disc tribometer, (iv) glow discharge optical emission spectroscope, (v) field emission scanning electron microscope, (vi) scratch tester, and (vii) microhardness tester.   



A unified approach for analysis of wear and fatigue.
Page 2
Michael Khonsari
PDF (435 KB)


Control and quantification of friction, as a ubiquitous phenomenon, has been of significant priority in numerous practical applications involving contacting bodies. Economic implications ensuing from the loss of material, energy and functionality caused by friction and wear further underline the need for robust modeling techniques. While attempts to afford the development of comprehensive wear models have been profuse, the degree of their success has been limited owing, in large part, to the variegated nature of friction and wear. Today, in light of the existing body of knowledge, it is acknowledged that wear of materials involves a variety of complex and physically diverse phenomena that often occur in an inextricably intertwined fashion. It is, therefore, of no surprise that there exists a scarcity of predictive models to realistically account for the multifarious processes involved. Accordingly, the development of approaches that can properly unify the processes underlying wear and friction is an important scientific endeavor. Friction, wear, and fatigue are examples of dissipative processes in tribology wherein the system’s free energy, Y, responsible for doing useful work, decays with time. That is, if Yi denotes the initial free energy of a pristine tribosystem, then after completion of the dissipative process its free energy decreases to Yf such that Yf < Yi. This decay in the free energy continues until the system attains a minimum at the equilibrium state in accordance with the principle of minimum free energy.  Thus, the system’s path to the minimum free-energy is always accompanied by increasing entropy until it reaches its peak value at the equilibrium state. The increase in entropy is a consequence of increasing disorder in the system with time. Therefore, notwithstanding the multiplicity of underlying dissipative processes involved, they all share one unique feature: they all produce entropy. Therefore, thermodynamic entropy production is believed to be a propitious measure for a systematic study of wear and friction. In this lecture, I present results of a series of recent experimental and analytical development associated with surface degradation such as adhesive wear as well as fatigue fracture within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics.  This view offers a potentially transformative path forward for the development of predictive methodologies for variety of applications.



Tribology issues in low-friction engine surface finishing.
Page 3
M. El Mansori, S. Mezghani, l. Sabri
PDF (358 KB)


Reducing the energy wasted to combat friction in internal combustion engines should help reduce consumption of fossil fuels. In the total engine friction equation, there are three major sources of friction loss: piston and rings, the valve train and the crankshaft and engine bearings. The tribo-system of piston/rings/cylinder is the undisputed first source, claiming about a 50% share. Second major source of friction loss is crankshaft and engine bearings, where the friction loss rises proportionally with RPM. Manufacturers are hence searching for low friction surface finishing processes that enable engine builders to achieve the tough emissions standards looming on the horizon. For example, in the case of the piston/rings/cylinder tribo-system, the major issue is to hone the cylinder liner sizes down to the millionths. The cylinder liner surface is in fact the “original” micro-scale structured surface; designed with a deterministic pattern of high aspect ratio features and anisotropy of surface properties. It comprises alternating flat plateaus (bearing regions) and deep valleys for lubricant, transportation. To manufacture such a tribo-functional surface, abrasive honing process is the choice for mass production. For the crankshafts finishes, rotating assemblies ride on a thin wedge of oil having thickness of only 1.3 µm in some cases. Moreover, to reduce friction as much as possible, oil itself is much less viscous as well, so it is especially important to achieve proper surface finish on all crank journals. Belt polishing or micro-polishing is technically the most advanced way to achieve surface finish on cranks. The main goal of polishing any crankshaft is to create "peak-free" surface to handle load without changing the size of their ground parts. The objective of this keynote paper is to show how tribology can be used to control low-friction surface design based on the premise that an intimate connection exists between the abrasive wear mechanisms prevailing during finishing and the multi-scale induced-modification on the produced surfaces. The implementation of this multiscale approach within a mass production environment allows to correlate the tribo-functional performance of the intolerance designed surface and the manufacturing process of its generation. The various applications of this multiscale approach also demonstrate that the process signature should respond in a predictable fashion to change its functional performance with respect to the durability and energy consumption footprint of Internal Combustion Engines.


Overlooking map of tribotechnology.
Pages 4-5
Takahisa Kato
PDF (630 KB)


The Japanese Society of Tribologists (JAST) Technical Committee of Tribotechnology Roadmap is making the overlooking map of tribotechnology. The report shows briefly the structure and mechanism of the map and introduces the future tribotechnology requested by industries. The map has an effect to visualize the relation between the triboelements and tribosystems through the tribological issues to be solved. In addition, the map visualizes the application of fundamental tribology researches. 


Invited Talks

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Tribological aspects of wind and water power plants.
Page 6
Wilfried J. Bartz
PDF (276 KB)



The targets for the future are concentrated on the following considerations: a) Saving of resources, because they are limited, b) Protection of the environment, because the humanity (mankind) has to survive. We have to take into account the depletion of conventional raw materials, e.g. crude oil, coal, metals and non-metals, because they will ran out during the next some hundred years. But sun, wind and water energy are available for ever. Today we have to rely to the following energy carriers: a) Conventional carriers like crude oil and natural gas, b) Biomass, c) Hydrogen d) Electricity. But electricity has to be produced by sun, water and wind energy. As long as mechanical devices for the production of electricity are needed we have to take into account tribological systems with friction, wear and lubrication aspects.


New generation carbon coatings with monocrystalline structure as the promising new method of oil lubricity increasing.
Pages 7-8
V. Levchenko, I. Buyanovsky, K. Zakharov, A. Bol’shakov, V. Matveenko
PDF (301 KB)



New generation carbon coatings with monocrystalline structure are proposed for using in tribounits of heavy loaded machines and apparatus operating under conditions of boundary lubrication. These coatings allow increasing essentially antifrictional characteristics of lube oils without triboactive additives or enlarging temperature range of lube oils efficiency under boundary lubrication.  Effect of the coatings under consideration on oil tribological properties is explained by reproduction of the solid substrate orientation i.e.  highly ordered monocrystalline carbon in oil boundary layer, that allows forming strong boundary layers composed of homeotropically oriented molecules with increased temperature stability. Contrary to monocrysta-lline carbon coatings amorphous ones do nor display   remarkable orientating effect and correspondingly have no influence on lube ability of studied oils.


Status and developments in tribology of polymer composites.
s 9-11
A.K. Schlarb
PDF (798 KB)



Plain bearing applications based on plastics offer engineering benefits, such as freedom from maintenance, tolerance for lack of lubrication, and noise reduction. Under higher pressures per unit area and at higher surface speeds, however, the potential use of plastics is limited. However, it is possible to improve the performance capabilities of polymer-based tribomaterials noticeably through reinforcement with different additives. Nevertheless, the matrix material still behaves sensitive to temperature. The paper describes the development of polymer based tribomaterials and proposes an approach for the simulation of the temperature distribution and wear behavior in a polymer/steel tribological system.


Nature inspired design in tribology.
M.J. Ghazali, H.A. Hassan, J.A. Wahab
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In recent years, biomimetic has gained attention in the field of science and technology. It has been grown into diverse areas ranging from micro- to nano-electronics to structural engineering and now rapidly emerging in the field of tribology. The present article provides examples of bio-inspired topics and recent developments related to tribology. It covers the details of bio-inspired surfaces and properties that exhibit high wear resistance, low or high adhesion and the friction properties at micro- or nano-scales. Successful examples of animal- and plant-inspired inventions are discussed in great detail.


Low friction property of carbon overcoat DLC under boundary lubrication.
T. Tokoroyama
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The surface protection by carbonaceous coating is becoming also common in several industries. We already know hard disk drive has been protected by very thin Diamond-Like Carbon and very few amount of lubrication. From the very low normal load condition to high, we have to consider how to reduce the wear amount of DLC itself, but also counter materials. In this study, we focused on low friction coefficient and low attack ability to the counter materials under boundary lubrication condition. Several kinds of DLC were reported and it showed very low friction coefficient in special condition (in high vacuum, in dry nitrogen etc.), however, it was also difficult to achieve lower than 0.1 under ATF (Automatic Transmission Fluid). From the hypothesis of solid lubrication, low friction coefficient will take place if we apply a soft material on a hard material. We tried to clarify the effect of carbon overcoat on DLC coating slid in ATF under boundary lubrication condition. The DLC coating was synthesized on steel alloy disk by sputtering. The thickness of as-deposited DLC was approximately 1 mm, and we gave carbon overcoat on it as 0.3 mm. The surface roughness of DLC and DLC with carbon overcoat was approximately 6.2 nmRa and 1.8 nmRa respectively. The wear scar on SUJ2 ball was observed by optical microscope and SEM, then specific wear rate was compared. The friction coefficient of DLC with carbon overcoat showed around 0.09 was smaller than DLC of 0.2. Moreover, the specific wear rate of SUJ2 ball slid against DLC with carbon overcoat was approximately 1.7 x 10-6 mm3/Nm, which was smaller than 2.8 x 10-6 mm3/Nm of DLC.


Effect of surface texturing on friction coefficient between aluminum and alloy tool steel under lubricated sliding contact.
s 17-18
N. Nuraliza, S. Syahrullail
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Recently, it has been identified that controlled porosity on a tribological surface can contribute to friction reduction at sliding contact interfaces. The present paper verifies the effect of micro-pit on the frictional properties of aluminum against SKD 11(alloy tool steel).Pin-on-disk tests modeling the contact between block surface and planar faces were carried out for a variety of sliding speed. It was found that the tribological characteristics depended greatly on the embedded micro-pit or without micro-pit, whilst the micro-pits shape did not significantly affect the friction coefficient regardless of rounded shape.


Adsorption and friction of Mussel Adhesive Protein (MAP) films under polarization.
s 19-20
G.X. Xie, F. Zhang, J.S. Pan
PDF (596 KB)



Mussel Adhesive Protein (MAP) is an adhesive protein derived from blue mussel byssus, and has promising applications for a variety of functional coatings. In this work, different analytical techniques including cyclic voltammetry, chronocoulometry experiments, and microtribometer have been used to investigate the interfacial structures and the frictional properties of MAP film on the platinum (Pt) substrate under polarization. MAP adsorption could change electrostatically after polarization. The friction of adsorbed MAP film can be tuned effectively in a suitable potential range, which is promising for future active control over the adsorption and friction of MAP films.


Performance analysis of thermal arc spray aluminium coating as a sacrificial anode and mechanical properties in artificial seawater.
s 21-22
Nor Hayati Saad, Muhamad Hafiz Abd Malek, Sunhaji Kiyai Abas, Noriyati Md Shah
PDF (441 KB)



Aluminium coating with 99.5% purity and different coating thickness (200 μm – 700 μm) were applied on 15 mild steel plates by using thermal arc spray method and immersed in artificial seawater within 12 months. The variation in microstructural characteristics and properties of coating was investigated. Surface microstructures were viewed and analyzed using scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray analysis.  The hardness was inspected using Vickers Hardness testing. Corrosion rate was measured using thickness reduction method and surface quality (surface pores and holes) were estimated using image analyzer. Surface roughness was viewed using Infinitefocus G4 machine. Experimental results were found that no direct correlation between surface roughness and coating thickness. However the coating thickness directly impacts the coating surface quality and reduces the coating hardness. It also found that sacrificial action works well in coating form for all coating thickness and recorded potential difference range from -0.79 V until -0.886 V. From the analyses, the thickness of coating at 500 μm-600 μm provides better coating performance in terms of optimum potential difference and least corrosion rate. However the 200-300 μm coating thickness produced the best surface quality and the highest surface hardness.


High speed and large area coating of tetrahedral amorphous carbon with filtered multi cathode vacuum arc plasma system.
s 23-24
Young-Jun Jang, Yong Jin Kim, Gi Taek Kim, Yong Jin Kang, Jong-kuk Kim, Seock-Sam Kim
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Filtered cathode vacuum arc (FCVA) method is characterized by plasma beam directionality, plasma energy distribution on substrate, macro particle filtering and coating temperature. Between the two kinds of focus of FCVA method, namely, production cost and high efficiency ta-C coating such as large area deposition with high quality films. In this research, we were filtered muli cathode vacuum arc (FMCVA) system designed and produced to enhance ta-C coating. The system, a specialized configuration of magnetic field with stabilized the d.c. arc plasma discharge during deposition. For acceptable quality for automobile accessories, the magnetic field, T type of filters and multi cathode arc plasma were demonstrated by the deposition of ta-C coating. The measured coating performances were showed that ± 10 % of uniformity, 0.6 um/hr of deposition speed in room temperature and over the 40 GPa of hardness. 


Tribological impact of CI engine piston rings under different blend ratio biodiesel.
s 25-26
N. Tamaldin, M.F.B. Abdollah, H. Amiruddin, M.A. Abdullah, M.T. Taib
PDF (537 KB)



The eagerness of commercializing higher blend ratio biodiesel around the globe was an initiative to support renewable energy and protecting the environment. However, other negative impact including to the engine components was crucial for application in automobiles. In this study, the wear impact due to changing biodiesel blend from B5 to B70 was investigated. Results show that as we utilized higher blend ratio biodiesel, the wear also increased approximately 9%, which give negative impact to the engine life and overall performance. As the engine speed increases, the wear also increased until reaching its peak and reduces to a minimum. This result conflict with lab based using four-ball tester and need to be further investigated and correlated.


Wear prediction of die coating in strip ironing by Finite Element simulation.
s 27-28
Numchoak Sabangban, Sasawat Mahabunphachai, Sedthawatt Sucharitpwatskul, Numpon Mahayotsanun
PDF (527 KB)



This paper presented a method to predict wear of the die coatings in strip ironing process by using finite element simulation. This method calculated the wear depth of the die coatings in each cycle of the strip ironing process. TiN and CrN coatings were investigated. The number of cycles until reaching die coating thickness was also determined. In this study, TiN provided lower wear depth and higher number of cycles.


An integration using Taguchi /response surface method on wear and friction of stainless steel-pin-on-pure al block.
Pages 29-30
R. Md. Nasir, D.W.J. Jan
PDF (369 KB)



In this study, integration of Taguchi and Response Surface methods (RSM) was applied for wear rate and coefficient of friction of stainless steel-pin-on pure aluminium block. Integration factors and levels were planned according to orthogonal arrays and analysis of testing parameters was done using analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine the regression equation for both wear rate and coefficient of friction. Finally, the morphology and microstructure of wear were analysed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX). For wear rate the error percentage ranging from 6.6% to 22.5% and for coefficient of friction (COF) the error percentage was ranging from 9.5% to 36.9%.


Power generation and blade turbine erosion.
Page 31
Mohammed Rahmani
PDF (351 KB)



The generation of electricity in power plants, makes use of different types of prime movers depending on the available primary energy. In thermal power plants, Steam turbines are employed to drive the main generators, whereas Pelton or Francis turbines are used in hydraulic power plants, depending on the water flow and fall height. Gas turbines are widely used to drive the main generators in the internal regions of the country, due to water lack. The efficiency of all of the above turbines can be seriously reduced due to the erosion phenomena, caused by the sand particles for gas turbines,   solid particles in water for hydraulic turbines and water droplets for steam turbines. In Algeria, the steam turbines are mainly used in the coast regions, whereas the gas turbines are used in the internal regions because of the lack of water needed for cooling purposes. The hydraulic power generation stands for less than 01% of the national total generation capacity. For steam turbines, sea water is desalinated and chemically treated to avoid the corrosion effects on the boiler, steam installations, turbine stages and condensers. The erosion caused by wet steam flow reduces the efficiency of the last stage rotor blades of condensing steam turbines, and makes their service life shorter. The problem of steam turbine blade erosion is not new and many studies have already highlighted different aspects of this issue. It is dependent on a variety of parameters, the most important being droplet size and velocity as well as peripheral speed of the rotor at the location of droplet impact. Water droplet impact erosion of last stage steam turbine blades has been a well-known and at times aggravating phenomenon in the steam turbine and power utility community for a century. The steam is expanded to a low pressure and temperature in order to improve the thermal efficiency of the plant and this causes the steam to expand below the saturation line leading to the formation of droplets in the flow. It is commonly agreed that this kind of droplet erosion is unavoidable when a steam turbine is operated under wet steam conditions. For gas turbines, the situation is not different, because the consequences of erosion are serious on life and performance of the turbines, the erosion is caused by the sand particles intake with air, due to imperfect filtration, especially in the Sahara deserts, where we have not only sand but the sand storms. It is easy to understand that the extent of the erosion is a direct function of the quantity and mass of the impinging particles. As the mass of a particle is proportional to its volume (i.e., to the third power of its diameter), erosion is mainly due to the ingestion of particles having a diameter Φ > 5μm, which represents a major portion of the mass of a typical atmospheric aerosol and transfers the greatest amount of kinetic energy. To limit the effects of the erosion phenomena on the turbine blades, new blade coatings and materials are being developed to meet the challenging requirements of modern gas and steam turbines. For gas turbines, and in order to adapt machines to a variety of environments while realizing their full potential in terms of performance and reliability, it is necessary to treat the air that they consume.


Evaluation of transformed layer of DLC coating after friction test using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM).
Pages 32-33
N.A.B. Masripan, Y. Tsukiyama, K. Ohara, N. Umehara, H. Kousaka, T. Tokoroyama, S. Inami, K. Zushi, M. Fujita
PDF (508 KB)



Diamond-like carbons (DLC) with hardness of 47.1GPa were coated on SUJ2 rollers, and their tribological properties were investigated after friction test under boundary lubrication conditions in an additive-free mineral-based oil at different testing oil temperatures of 24, 80 and 160°C. From the results of the Raman analyses and Spectroscopy ellipsometry, we found that the structure changed of DLC at the topmost of sliding surface and their thickness will measured using AFM. It is found that the transformed layer increased with increases of testing oil temperature.


Corrosion study of heat treated nanocrystalline CoNiFe coating exposed in sodium solution.
Pages 34-35
Nor Azrina Resali, Koay Mei Hyie, M.N. Berhan, N.R. Nik Roselina, C.M. Mardziah, Zuraidah Salleh
PDF (486 KB)



Repair of corrosion damaged equipment is the largest maintenance requirement for the industry. Recently, with the development of alternative material such as electrodeposited CoNiFe, these problems have largely been overcome. In this study, nanocrystalline CoNiFe with particle size in the range of 26.3-49.3nm are being developed to enhance the corrosion properties. It is believed that the heat treatment applied on the electrodeposited CoNiFe produces better coating with less porosity. Hence, this paper focused on the comparison between the electrodeposited CoNiFe with and without heat treatment. The findings showed that the electrodeposited CoNiFe exhibit the enhancement in corrosion resistance after heat treatment. However, the heat treated CoNiFe using mixing gases (Argon and Hydrogen) revealed higher oxygen content at 5.34 wt% and thus contributed to the highest rate to corrode.

Theme 1: Bearing Design and Technnology

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Stability of double porous and surface porous layer journal bearing.
Pages 36-37
T.V.V.L.N. Rao, A.M.A. Rani, M. Awang, T. Nagarajan, F.M. Hashim
PDF (801 KB)



The purpose of this paper is to present the linearized stability analysis of journal bearing with double porous and surface porous layer lubricant film. The Brinkman model is employed to model the flow in the porous region. The porous layer with infinite permeability is analyzed in this study as surface layer. The load capacity, threshold speed and critical whirl frequency ratio coefficients (Cw, Cω, CΩ) are computed for double porous and surface porous layer configurations. Higher threshold speed is obtained for (i) double porous layer lubricant film with low permeability porous layer over high permeability bearing adsorbent porous layer, and (ii) surface porous layer lubricant film.


3D surface roughness effects on porous journal bearing performances.
Pages 38-39
Mohammedrafi H. Kerur, T. Nagaraju
PDF (220 KB)



Influence of 3D surface roughness parameters on performance characteristics of porous journal bearing is studied. The modified form of average Reynolds equation is developed for the porous bearing to include 3D surface roughness effect and its solution is obtained using finite element method. The influence of roughness orientations and roughness characteristics of opposing surfaces on load carrying capacity, coefficient of friction, fluid-film stiffness and damping coefficients of porous journal bearing are studied. Stationary roughness and transverse roughness pattern combination was found to provides maximum enhanced load carrying capacity, fluid-film stiffness and damping coefficients.


Effect of dimensional tolerances on the performance of hybrid bearing.
Pages 40-41
K.P. Lijesh, H. Hirani
PDF (216 KB)



In extreme operating condition of a fluid film bearing (FFB), metal to metal contact occurs and resulting in failure of the bearings. Under such extreme conditions wear of the FFB are highly sensitive to the tolerance of the bearings. A theoretical study on the tolerance sensitivity of a sugar mill bearing has been performed. To provide solution to reduce the sensitivity of the FFB, a hybrid (FFB + rotating magnetization direction Magnetic Bearing (RMDMB)) is proposed. The tolerance sensitivity towards load carrying capacity of FFB, RMDMB and Hybrid bearing is evaluated for the sugar mill bearing and results are presented.  


Problems of rolling bearing life in small turbojet engines.
Pages 42-43
Boleslaw Giemza, Pawel Jozwik
PDF (565 KB)



This paper presents investigations results of several worn rolling hybrid bearings with ceramic Si3N4 balls and steel raceways – 608 type. Bearings were acquired from small turbojet engines, used in aircraft models, after its have reached the service life. Authors used scanning electron microscopy, light optical microscopy and non-contact profilometry techniques for bearing elements examination.


Surface roughness and fluid inertia effects on non-Newtonian THD performances of a journal bearing.
Pages 44-45
T. Nagaraju, E. Sujith Prasad
PDF (223 KB)



This theoretical work describes the development of mathematical models to include surface roughness and fluid inertia effects in non-Newtonian THD analysis of a journal bearing. The average Reynolds equation, the pressure induced mean velocities and velocity components are modified using Patir and Cheng’s flow factors. The expressions for the fluid-film pressure derivatives for the computation of fluid-film dynamic coefficients are also developed. Finite element method and its numerical algorithm for the simultaneous solution of modified average Reynolds, energy and conduction equations are described. The effects of roughness parameters on static and dynamic characteristics of journal bearing are studied by considering non-Newtonian behavior of lubricant, thermal and fluid inertia effects.


Effect of orientation of pocket on the performance of geometrically irregular hybrid journal bearing.
Pages 4
Arvind K. Rajput, Satish C. Sharma, Nathi Ram
PDF (664 KB)



The present work examines the influence of geometric irregularities of journal along with the influence of orientation of pockets on the capillary compensated 4 pocket bearing system analytically. The effect of barrel, bellmouth and circumferential undulated type irregularities of journal on the performance of bearing system was analyzed. Two type of bearing configurations were considered to evaluate the influence of pocket’s orientation. The Reynolds equation was solved by using finite element method. The numerically simulated results indicated that the effect of geometrically irregularities of journal affect the bearing performance significantly, however, the effect is dissimilar to the different orientation of pockets. 


Reusable sounding rocket engine and it’s tribological subjects.
Pages 48-49
M. Yoshida, S. Takada, T. Hashimoto, M. Sato, T. Kimura
PDF (666 KB)



A fully reusable sounding rocket has been proposed by JAXA/ISAS to provide frequent opportunities for high altitude atmospheric observation missions at low cost and with short turnaround time, and also to improve technology readiness levels for reusable space transportation systems. This rocket will take off vertically, reach an altitude of more than 100 km, land on the launch site vertically, and be launched again within 24 hours. The main propulsion system will consist of clustered LOX/LH2 engines with full-time abort capability in case of the failure of one engine. In order to realize the reusable sounding rocket, the main propulsion system should have advanced features of high reliability, reusability, maintainability, and survivability. To fulfill those requirements, the following points were considered and reflected in the engine system design, i.e., optimization of design margins among components for high reliability and reusability, deep throttling capability for vertical landing, and health monitoring capability for abort operation, easy inspection and maintenance for short turnaround time. Those functions and performance have been verified and demonstrated through ground tests at Kakuda Space Center/JAXA in 2014. This paper shows the design considerations, the design of the engine system and its major components, and the tribological properties of bearings and seals of turbopumps.

Theme 2: Biotribology

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Effect of radial and thickness of polyethylene on wear generation in total ankle replacement.
Pages 50-51
A.M.S. Putra, M.N. Harun, Ardiyansyah Syahrom, M.R. Abdul Kadir
PDF (485 KB)



Loosening of the bearing component of TAR became main cause to implant failure due to the polyethylene wear particles induced osteolysis. This paper introduces a wear prediction on effect of radial and thickness of polyethylene towards wear generation on TAR. The joint reaction force profile at ankle joint applied 25 discrete instants during stance phase of a gait cycle. The sliding distance was obtained from predominate motions of plantar/dorsi flexion. The value of linear wear depth and volumetric wear is in agreement with experimental testing was 0.01614 mm per million cycles and 30.5 mm3, respectively.


The influence of peg designs on glenoid component: A finite element study.
Pages 52-53
A.W.A. Hadi, M.R.A. Kadir, M.N. Harun, A. Syahrom
PDF (331 KB)



Glenoid loosening was associated with stress at the implant and cement. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of pegs and its distribution on stress transfer to the implant and cement. Six commercially available implant designs were simulated via finite element analysis with different peg distributions. Maximum stress at the implant and cement and stress critical area (SCA) at the cement were obtained. Partially cemented implants had the ability to reduce the stress at the implant and cement by adding more fins at the central peg.


The effect of the wear rate on impingement failure confirming the relation between impingement failure and wear of the acetabular liner surface based on finite element simulation.
Pages 54-55
E. Saputra, I.B. Anwar, R. Ismail, J. Jamari, E. van der Heide
PDF (612 KB)



In this study, an impingement failure analysis was performed on acetabular liner rim of an artificial hip joint (AHJ). A commercial finite element method software package was used to simulate local impingement on the acetabular liner rim (ALR) due to wear depth variations (wear rates) inside the acetabular liner surface (ALS). The results show that wear rates of the ALS can increase the risk of impingement on the ALR.


Study on the biocompatibility and wear of stainless steel 316L and UHMWPE materials.
Pages 56-57
I.B. Anwar, E. Saputra, R. Ismail, J. Jamari, E. van der Heide
PDF (500 KB)



The objective of this work are to study biocompatibility and wear of stainless steel AISI 316L (SS316L) and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) materials. For the biocompatibility, the materials were installed in Rabbit’s tissues. Then, after three weeks the tissue reactions were examined. Statistical test was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). To obtain the wear phenomena, a wear test of the materials using the hip joint simulator was performed. Results showed that the Rabbit tissues reactions around the implant materials are positive. In addition, wear occurred only in the UHWPE material.


Characteristics of regenerated cartilage tissue cultured under traction loading.
Pages 58-59
K. Fukuda, S. Omata, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Sawae
PDF (471 KB)



In this study, chondrocytes isolated from metacarpal-phalangeal joints were seeded in agarose gel. And, traction loading was applied to the surface of the gel by the roller to examine the effect of the tribological stimulation on the characteristics of the regenerated cartilage tissue elaborated in chondrocyte-agarose construct. Results indicated that the traction loading enhanced ECM biosynthesis in the surface region selectively and subsequently elaborated tissue had anisotropic structure with collagen rich surface layer covered with GAG rich superficial layer.


Measuring human hair friction with a crossed fibres test setup.
Pages 60-61
V. Krasmik, J. Schlattmann
PDF (395 KB)



Using a crossed fibres contact configuration, reciprocating sliding tests with single human hair fibres were carried out. The sliding direction, the normal load, and the crossing angle were the main parameters of the investigation. 

Theme 3: Contact Mechanics

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Physical properties and energy absorption characteristic of open cell ENR/RR foam.
Pages 62-63
M.A. Mahamood, N. Mohamad, A.R. Jeeffeerie, A.H.M. Zain, M.I. Shueb
PDF (461 KB)



Impact absorber foam materials were produced from epoxidised natural rubber/reclaimed rubber (ENR/RR) with the addition of sodium bicarbonate (SBC) as blowing agent. The physical properties of ENR/RR foams were studied, and the results showed a significant influence of the physical properties of base matrix against the pore structure. The physical properties are governed by the relative density and water absorption. From the experimental values, ENR/RR with the ratio 90/10 yielded the rubber foam with the highest relative density of 0.85 as well as lowest water absorption rate of 2.48. These foam cell characteristics resulted in superior energy absorption behaviour.  Sample with optimum pore size of ~0.36 mm shows the highest energy absorption up to 0.65 joules compared to others.


Plastic deformation in running-in of rolling contact.
Pages 6
N.F. Mohd Yusof, Z.M. Ripin
PDF (304 KB)



The aim of this study is to understand the surface deformation during the first phase of rolling contact cycles. Quantification of surface characteristic at micro-geometry scale is crucial for wear and fatigue prediction. In this study, a new test rig is developed to measure the progressive surface deformation. The online measurement of surface deformation is evaluated periodically using infinite focus microscope (IFM). This is the first time the surface deformation is monitored online by using IFM.


Finite element modeling of the contact between an insole shoe and a ballnose cutter milling.
Pages 66-67
B. Bawono, P.W. Anggoro, J. Jamari, A.P. Bayuseno
PDF (358 KB)



Manufacture process of an insole shoe is quiet challenging. The most problem that frequently encountered is the contact between the cutter milling and the insole material. This paper studied such contact by finite element analysis. The results were presented in the form of von Misses stress distribution as a function of the studied contact parameters.


A numerical investigation of mechanical behavior of unfilled styrene-butadiene rubber by static straight blade indentation.
Pages 6
B. Setiyana, R. Ismail, J. Jamari, D.J. Schipper
PDF (626 KB)



By using Finite Element Analysis (FEA), this study investigated the indentation load and maximum stress due to straight blade indentation of unfilled Styrene Butadine Rubber. Results are presented as a function of blade indenter characteristics, wedge angle and tip radius, at a specified depth of indentation.


Finite element analysis of a two layer viscoelastic material in contact with a flat punch.
Pages 70-71
P.W. Angoro, B. Bawono, J. Jamari, A.P. Bayuseno
PDF (360 KB)



This paper presents a normal contact problem between a hard flat punch and a deformable rubber (viscoelastic) material.  A Castaldo Gellata Fuschea (SRCGF) material was used for the rubber. Abaqus 6.13 was used to analyze the contact system. Result showed that there is a similarity between the model and the literature for characterizing the viscoeleastic properties.


Effects of drop height and damper thickness on shock output optimization for hard disk drive reliability.
C.K. Low, M. Jamil, M. Azrul, C.H. Tan, N. Kazuo, W.L. Ng, Watanabe Takeshi, M. Ridwan, M. Ridzwan
PDF (391 KB)



A study of the shock test towards Hard Disk Drive (HDD) was carried out. Experimental results were used to analyze and optimize the suitable parameters, in order to achieve a shock output that excite internal resonant and cause most damages to the HDD. The study revealed the damper and drop height showing importance parameters for shock test.


Running-in of an artificial rough rolling-sliding contact using finite element analysis.
Pages 74-75
R. Ismail, E. Saputra, J. Jamari, D.J. Schipper
PDF (482 KB)



The aim of the present paper is simulating a rolling-sliding contact using finite element analysis (FEA) to analyze the change in surface topography and contact. Finite element simulations are done for the two-disc configuration with an artificial rough surface of a sphere and a smooth cylinder. The results show that the contact pressure reaches a stabilized value after a certain number of rotations, indicating the end of the running-in phase and the beginning of the steady-state phase.


Effect of geometry on the plastic contact between two hemispheres.
J. Jamari, E. Saputra, R. Ismail, M. Tauviqirrahman, D.J. Schipper
PDF (476 KB)



Mechanics of plastic contact is very important for determining the (micro-) geometrical change of contacting surfaces. This paper proposes a finite element analysis for the plastic contact between two deformable hemispheres. The effect of geometry on the degree of plasticity was presented.


Stick-slip motions of polymer gels having multiple artificial asperities.
Pages 78-79
T. Yamaguchi, Y. Himeno, Y. Sawae
PDF (851 KB)



We report our experimental studies on stick-slip motions between polymer gels having artificial surface asperities. We show that, depending on the density and configuration randomness of asperities, the stick-slip behavior greatly changes: when the asperities are located periodically with sufficient separation, fast and regular stick-slip motions occur, while slow and heterogeneous slip behavior is observed for samples having randomly and densely located asperities. We discuss the condition for the occurrence of complex stick-slip cycles.


Novel design concept for Rayleigh step bearing with high robustness against step height change due to frictional wear.
Shunsuke Mori, Satoru Maegawa, Fumihiro Itoigawa, Takashi Nakamura
PDF (1037 KB)



In this study, a novel design concept for Rayleigh step bearings was developed focusing on the contact pressure distribution within the contact interface. In general cases, wear rate is proportional to the contact pressure. It indicates that shape changes due to friction wear can be controlled by the optimization of the pressure distribution. This paper presents a simplified model and an experiment for this concept.


Measurements of surface displacement field for multi-contact interface of elastomers.
Pages 82-83
S. Maegawa, F. Itoigawa, T. Nakamura
PDF (661 KB)



This study publishes surface displace measurements in the multi-contact interface between a rough rubber surface made of poly-dimethyl siloxane (PDMS) and smooth hemispherical glass lens. The PDMS plate was driven with a constant velocity until the onset of macroscopic global sliding. During sliding, time changes of tangential load and images of the contact interface were recorded, simultaneously. In addition, based on the digital image correlation method, the evolution of microslip was visualized.


Effects of dispersed sulfides in bronze under line contact conditions.
T. Sato, Y. Hirai, T. Fukui, K. Akiyama, H. Usami
PDF (786 KB)



A Sintered bronze system is applied to plane bearings with some lubricants. A bronze-based, sulfide-dispersed Cu-alloy was developed via sintering. Sulfides have some functions that reduce friction resistance, thereby preventing scoring and seizures. Effects of the developed sulfide-containing bronze were investigated using a journal-type testing apparatus in wet conditions; results indicate that the developed bronze may have some anti-scoring properties.


Compressive properties and water contact behavior of opened-cell green rubber foam at different blowing agent concentration.
Pages 86-87
N. Mohamad, M. Mazliah, Z. Nur Sharafina, M.N. Amirul Asyraf, M.F.B. Abdollah, A.M. Hairul Effendy
PDF (454 KB)



Green rubber foam from reclaimed rubber has high potential to replace available foam products in the market. It provides choices for cheaper material with only small trade-in in the properties and durability. This study is part of our effort to develop new green rubber foam from reclaimed rubber glove. It is focusing on the effect of sodium bicarbonate concentration at 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 parts per hundred rubber (phr) as blowing agent for the foaming process. The samples were prepared by melt compounding using an internal mixer and expanded via two step heat transfer foaming process. Performance of the green rubber foam was tested for compressive strength and water contact behavior via compression testing and water absorption. The results were supported with morphological analyses using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). From the experimental, sodium bicarbonate with concentration of 4 phr generated the smallest pores and highest relative density of 0.9. The pore structure of the open cell resulted to the lowest water absorption rate of 1.7 x 10-3 g/min as well as the highest compressive strength of 105 kPa.


Theoretical groundwork: An extension to the double Hertz model for adhesion between elastic cylinders.
N.H.M. Zini, M.B. de Rooij, N. Ismail, D.J. Schipper, A. Akchurin
PDF (559 KB)



The theoretical groundwork of an alternative approach to the adhesive contact problem of elastic cylinders is proposed, extending the work previously done on the double-Hertz model for circular and line contacts. A cohesive zone model with general formulations for elliptical contact between elastic cylinders is currently developed. By nature, this approach will be suitable in the case involving the bodies of general shape. The advantage of this model is that the analysis depends only on established results of the Hertz model. Initial results will be presented and discussed.


The contact area of elastomers as a function of the sliding velocity.
Pages 90-91
N.V. Rodriguez, M. Khafidh, M.A. Masen, D.J. Schipper
PDF (401 KB)



The friction in tribo-systems that contain viscoelastic materials, such as elastomers, is relevant for a large number of applications. Examples include tyres, hoses and conveyor belts. To quantify the friction in these applications, one must first understand the contact behaviour of such viscoelastic materials, both in static and in dynamic situations. This work discusses an experimental study into the change of the contact area with the sliding velocity. The results show that there is a threshold velocity, above which the size of the contact area significantly reduces.

Theme 4: Friction and Wear

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An investigation of hard-on-soft contact: For reducing friction in hemispherical cup.
Pages 92-93
D.M. Razak, S. Syahrullail, M.A. Nurul, N. Nuraliza, Y. Azli
PDF (613 KB)



Sliding motion for hard on soft (HOS) implant material application causes sliding impact failure. This research was conducted using different cup surfaces. Different amount pits fused on the hemispherical cup have shown the potential for improving the tribology of HoS sliding contact. Four-ball machine has been used as screening machine to evaluate the friction. The results showed that modified hemispherical cup with pits and lubricated with palm oil had a significant to reduce frictional rate. This new surface improvement will prolong the life span of soft implant material due to lubrication activities in HoS contact sliding.


Wear characteristics of thixoforming hypoeutectic Al-Si-Cu alloy with Mg addition.
K.S. Alhawari, M.Z. Omar, M.J. Ghazali, M.S. Salleh, M.N. Mohammed
PDF (582 KB)



The effect of magnesium addition on dry sliding wear characteristics of thixoformed Al-Si-Cu aluminum alloy was investigated. A pin-on-disc tribometer was used to carry out wear tests at 49N, 1m/s speed and 9Km distance. It was observed that increasing in Mg content up to 1.5 wt.% improves wear resistance and hardness of the thixoformed alloys. Addition of more than 1.5 wt.% Mg, however, led to increase in hardness, but resulting in a lower wear resistance. The dominant wear mechanism is a combination of abrasion and adhesion at low Mg content alloys and delamination with some abrasion at high Mg alloy.


Effect of the particle angularity on friction coefficients and grit embedment of brake pad material.
Pages 96-97
M.K. Abdul Hamid, A.R. Abu Bakar
PDF (586 KB)



Effect of hard particle angularity on frictional coefficients and grit embedment of brake material was investigated. The particles used in this study were silicon carbide, silica sand and garnet with drag and stop mode test. The spike parameter quadratic fit (SPQ) method was applied to characterize the particles angularity. Results showed that particles angularity exhibited a great influence in modifying the effective contact, wear generation and friction coefficient. Good correlation between pad specimen weight loss and grit embedment was found. Signs of formation and disintegration of contact plateaus correlated well with angularity, suggesting the grit embedment role as wearing mechanism.


Influence of temperature on galling resistance of SS 416.
A.P. Harsha, P.K. Limaye
PDF (699 KB)



The galling measurement was carried out on annealed SS 416 specimens under the self-mated condition as per the ASTM G196-08 test method. The test method appears to be superior to an older ASTM G98 because galling behaviour is prevailed by stochastic wear phenomenon.


Dry sliding wear of in-situ synthesized Al-TiC composites.
Pages 100-101
Abhishek Kumar, Rakesh K. Gautam, Rajnesh Tyagi
PDF (495 KB)



Al-TiC composites containing three different amounts of TiC have been synthesized through in-melt reaction of titanium and SiC in the aluminum melt through stir casting. The TiC forms from reaction between Ti and carbon which is released by SiC at temperatures greater than 11000C. However, some amount of Al3Ti is also formed. The friction and wear behavior has been examined at different loads of 9.8 N, 19.6 N, 29.4 N, 39.2 N and at a constant sliding speed of the 1 m/s using a pin-on-disc machine. The results indicate friction and wear performance gets improved with increasing amount of TiC. 


Sliding wear behavior of electro-carburized low carbon steel at high speed.
J.L.J. Ling, W.Y.H. Liew, N.J. Siambun
PDF (473 KB)



Commercialized mild steel has been subjected to electro-carburization in carbonate salts mixtures of Na2CO3-NaCl at 860˚C and 4.5 volt. Wear behavior of carburized steel was evaluated using ball-on-disc under various speeds and loads. Coefficient of friction and wear volume obtained were studied.  Carburized steel was capable to maintain low wear volume loss even at high speed. The wear resistance for steel carburized 1 hour was better compared to steel carburized 3 hours. 


The characteristics of the fretting wear of Inconel738LC and CM247LC according to the roughness change.
Pages 104-105
Kyoung-Sup Kum, Young-Ze Lee
PDF (276 KB)



Especially, in the gas turbine blades, Inconel 738 LC and CM 247 LC have been mainly used as the substrate of blade’s components.  Since the gas turbine blades are rotating to generate the power, this makes the vibration between blades and blade wheel, so called “dovetails”. This induced vibration acts the fretting wear. The damage level of fretting wear is related with the surface shape such as the roughness. Therefore, we can reduce the damage level of fretting wear by control the roughness.  In this paper, the fretting test was conducted under the 3 steps-roughness (Ra 2.5um, 0.7um, 0.02um) to verify the characteristics of the fretting wear depending on the roughness changes.  The results show that the friction coefficient of fretting was decreasing as the roughness was increasing. Therefore, the main wear mechanism is adhesive wear since the friction coefficient shows higher in smoother surface. The fretting wear of CM247LC is less affected by the roughness change than Inconel738LC. However, the Inconel 738 LC may have better performance than CM247LC in 2.5um of Ra.


Reciprocating wear of mild steel carburized using Na2CO3-NaCl.
W.Y.H. Liew, Roonie Protasius, J.L.J. Ling, N.J. Siambun, Noor-Ajian Mohd-Lair
PDF (490 KB)



Experiments had been carried out to investigate the effect of carburization process, utilizing Na2CO3-NaCl as the electrolyte, on the wear resistance of mild steel.  Increasing the duration of the carburization process resulted in higher peak hardness, greater case depth and amount of carbide in the grain boundaries, and larger but lesser retained austenite grains.  The austenite microstructure formed in the steel carburized for 1 hour exhibited higher intergranular cracking and fracture resistance than the steel carburized for 3 hours. The difference in the cracking and fracture resistance could be attributed to the difference in the grain size and the amount of cementite in the grain boundaries. The results showed that steel with remarkable cracking, fracture, and abrasive wear resistance could be produced by removing the retained austenite grains from the surface of the carburized steel. 


Tribological behavior of Al based self-lubricating composites.
Pages 108-110
Vineet Rajput, Rakesh K. Gautam, Rajnesh Tyagi
PDF (804 KB)



Al based self-lubricating hybrid composites containing SiC as the hard phase and MoS2 as the solid lubricant were synthesized by using stir casting route. Dry sliding wear and friction characteristics of the composites have been examined at sliding speed of 1 m/s on a pin-on-disc tribometer under different normal loads of 9.8N, 14.7N, 19.6N, 24.5N. Both friction and wear rates were found to reduce with addition of MoS2, however, bonding between the matrix and reinforcements was not good. Hence, Mg was added to improve the wettability and this resulted in improved mechanical as well as tribological performance.


Effect of humidity on limiting friction: An experimental investigation.
K.S. Pondicherry, F. Wolf, G. Krenn
PDF (560 KB)



The current study elaborates on a novel test methodology developed for investigating the effect of humidity on static-friction behavior of tribological contacts at laboratory scale. The break-away (limiting) friction, of two different steel-polymer tribopairs was investigated as a function of humidity on a modular tribometer with a ball-on-three-plates configuration at room temperature. Results showed that the effect of humidity strongly depends upon the hygroscopic properties of the test surface.


Detection of wear transition using change in frequency of AE signals.
Pages 113-114
Alan Hase, Yota Takemura, Hiroshi Mishina
PDF (519 KB)



Adhesive and abrasive wear are the two main mechanisms of mechanical wear. Tribological properties between these wear mechanisms are very different. Since wear transition could be an obstacle to running machineries, it is important to identify the changes in wear state. In this study, to detect wear transition, changes in the frequency spectrum of acoustic emission (AE) signals were examined by the friction and wear experiments using metal pin and abrasive paper. It was found that wear transition could be identified from the occurrence of high frequency AE signals.


Dry sliding wear behavior of Al-SiO2 composites.
S. Mohan, Gaurav Gautam, Narendra Kumar, R.K. Gautam, A. Mohan, Ashish. Kr. Jaiswal
PDF (426 KB)



An Al-Silica based composites having four different compositions 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt. % Silica in aluminium matrix is developed using powder metallurgy rout. The developed composites have been characterized for compositional, microstructural, mechanical and sliding wear behavior. Wear behavior of different composite was studied with different parameter like sliding distance and applied loads. It has been observed that the Al- 10wt. % SiO2 composites exhibits an optimum mechanical and wear resistance properties.


Synthesis and tribological properties of AA5052 base insitu composites.
Pages 117-119
Gaurav Gautam, Narendra Kumar, Anita Mohan, Sunil Mohan, R.K. Gautam
PDF (573 KB)



In this present study, three insitu composites have been produced with different reinforcement of Al3Zr, ZrB2 and Al3Zr+ZrB2 in AA5052 alloy matrix by direct melt reaction (DMR) technique. These composites were characterized by XRD for phases present, for morphology under SEM. Mechanical properties have been evaluated in detail and tribological properties have been studied under dry sliding wear conditions for all composites for different variables such as sliding distance and applied loads. XRD and SEM results show the successful formation of reinforcements. The mechanical and wear test results shows that Al3Zr+ZrB2 reinforced AA5052 composite has the superior mechanical properties and wear resistance among all composites. This composite could be a suitable substitute for existing materials for applications related to automobile, aero-space and marine applications.


The challenge of temperature measurement in tribology experiments.
T.C. Yap, K.O. Low, M.N. Ervina Efzan
PDF (473 KB)



Surface temperature is an important factor controlling tribological behavior of sliding pair. Various techniques were used to measure the surface/interface temperature in tribological tests. The limitations of each technique are highlighted.


Effects of oxidative degradation on the wear and wear particles of cross-linked UHMWPE.
Pages 123-124
L. Zhang, Y. Sawae, T. Murakami, T. Yamaguchi
PDF (571 KB)



This paper investigated the effects of oxidation and radiation dose on the wear and wear particles of cross-linked Ultra-high Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) by the FT-IR and multi-directional pin-on-plate wear tester. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the necessary software were used for quantitative analysis of wear particles. Results showed that the wear rate and wear particles of cross-linked UHMWPE were not sensitive to the oxidation when the oxidation index (OI) under a certain level. With the increase of OI, the wear and wear particles were strongly affected by oxidation. The wear properties of 1000 kGy cross-linked UHMWPE showed lower sensitivity to oxidation.


Effect of trace moisture content on friction of carbon fiber filled PTFE in high purity gas.
H. Kojima, Y. Sawae, T. Morita, J. Sugimura
PDF (768 KB)



Effects of the moisture content in high purity gas on friction characteristics of carbon fiber filled PTFE was investigated by pin-on-disc tests. Results showed that the reduction of moisture content in gas tend to decrease friction coefficient. Analyses of transfer films by XPS, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, and laser microscopy showed that a part of the transfer film consisted of thin and smooth carbon layer and the area of smooth layer became larger with lower moisture content in gas. Therefore, the trace moisture might have some influence on the formation of the smooth carbon film.


Severe-mild wear transition at different relative humidity rates.
Pages 127-128
K. Fukuda, T. Morita
PDF (382 KB)



Severe-mild wear forms transition in self-mated sliding of pure Fe was studied in normal atmospheric air and the influence of relative humidity (RH) rates was discussed. The period of the severe wear form before the transition was not recognized in high RH rate environment while that had certain length in low RH rate. The influence of RH rate in atmospheric air on the transition was discussed with consideration on adsorbed water layer on the metallic surface.


Wear characteristics of a combustion liner for power generation gas turbine.
Ahmad Afiq Pauzi, Mariyam Jameelah Ghazali, Wan Fathul Hakim W. Zamri, Salmi Mohd Yunus, Shuib Husin
PDF (547 KB)



The occurrence of wear damage was observed on a combustion liner of a power generation gas turbine. The combustion liner is made of nickel based superalloy (Hastelloy X). The worn surface generally occurred at mating surfaces of the combustion liner. The purpose of this study is to determine the types of wear at three different mating surfaces (connected to a SS304 stainless steel, Nimonic C263 and carbon steel) after being exposed to 8,000 of running hours at high temperature and vibration. The affected areas of the mating surfaces were analyzed and the wear mechanism was discussed.


Kinetic and friction analyses of a preloaded double nut ball-screw.
Pages 131-132
Chin-Chung Wei,
Tung-Hao Hsu
PDF (613 KB)



High speed transmission table is wildly used in industry and its demand is increased. Preloaded ball-screw device is a major component in a transmission system. In order to bear applied load, preload and inertia force, double-nut ball-screw is necessary. Each nut has two ball cycles, the kinematic behavior and friction of ball and raceway are more complex than double-cycles ball-screw. A new calculating concept is used to simplified complex calculation. Contact and friction were found out at each cycle and they are varied with operating conditions, such as applied axial load and rotational speed. The study is helpful in realizing contact and friction behavior in a preloaded double-nut ball-screw.


Wear mechanism of carbide cutting tools in machining process.
Pages 133-134
Jaharah A. Ghani, Che Hassan Che Haron, Siti Haryani Tomadi, Mohd Shahir Kasim, Mohd Amri Sulaiman
PDF (461 KB)



Carbide cutting tool is widely used in machining process due to its availability. It is also cheaper than the majority of better performance cutting tool such as cubic boron nitride (CBN), polycrystalline diamond etc. In addition, the carbide cutting tool has substantial hardness and toughness that is suitable to be applied in intermittent cutting compared to the ceramic cutting tool. This paper presents the case study of wear mechanism experienced on edge of the coated and uncoated carbide tools in machining process (turning and milling). It was observed that the tools failed primarily due to wear on the two main areas of flank and rake faces for machining Inconel 718, and titanium alloy. Therefore it can be concluded that the mode of failure for the carbide cutting tools was similar regardless of the machining operations. The failure is believed to be due to the mechanical properties of the carbide materials such as brittleness rather than the type of machining operations.


Friction in fiber-fiber contact: An experimental setup.
N. Ismail, E.G. de Vries, M.B. de Rooij, N.H.M. Zini, D.J. Schipper
PDF (390 KB)



This study aims to develop a new experimental setup to measure friction between two interacting fibers. In the experiment, the frictional force is measured when two individual fibers are placed in perpendicular contact with applied normal load under several environmental conditions. It has been found that the dependence of the frictional coefficient on the normal load is substantial, as the coefficient was reduced by increasing the load. In addition, the moisture level also contributes to the friction factor force measured.


Effect of strain rate response and pin diameter on mechanically mixed layer formation and wear mechanisms in a Ti6Al4V – SS316L pair.
Pages 137-138
Ashok Raj J., Satish V. Kailas
PDF (526 KB)



Three mechanisms operate during wear of materials.  These mechanisms include the Strain Rate Response (SRR - effect of strain rate on plastic deformation), Tribo-Chemical Reactions (TCR) and formation of Mechanically Mixed Layers (MML).  The present work investigates the effect of these three in context of the formation of MML.  For this wear experiments are done on a pin-on-disc machine using Ti64 as the pin and SS316L as the disc.  It is seen that apart from the speed and load, which control the SRR and TCR, the diameter of the pin controls the formation of MML, especially at higher speeds.


Influence of single and multiple particle size variation on mechanical and wear behaviour of aluminium silicon carbide composites.
Pages 139-141
A.A. Adebisi, M.A. Maleque, M.Y. Ali, K.A. Bello
PDF (321 KB)



Lightweight aluminium composite possesses the potential requirement for modern technological applications due to its inherent and superior properties over monolithic materials. This study compares both mechanical and wear behaviour of single particle size (SPS) and multiple particle size (MPS) reinforced 6061 Al-20 wt% SiCp composite. The composite is produced using a bottom pouring stir casting set up. Standard impact and hardness test was conducted to ascertain the energy absorbed before fracture failure and resistance to plastic deformation of the composite. Pin-on-disc test was also investigated at room temperature under dry sliding wear condition. It was observed that the MPS-AMC exhibited superior hardness compared to the SPS-AMC because coarse particle size (CPS) support a greater fraction of applied load while the fine particle size (FPS) and intermediate particle size (IPS) sustain hardening due to dislocation.


The effect of oil treatment on wear property of medium carbon steel.
S. Kasolang, M.H.K. Anwar, M.H. Ismail, M.A.A. Bakar, N.R.N. Roselina, A. Jumahat
PDF (291 KB)



Self-lubricating materials are used in industry as a means to reduce friction and facilitate motion of machine components. With self-lubricating materials, the need for lubrication circulation system is reduced or eliminated. In this current study, the effect of oil treatment on wear characteristics of medium carbon steel obtained from a company were investigated. Abrasion Resistance Tester TR-600 was deployed to measure volume loss and subsequently determine the corresponding specific wear rate. Based on the results, it was found that treated materials have better wear resistance compared to the untreated ones. A difference of 34.5% in the accumulated volume mass between untreated and treated cases was recorded.


Significance of tool rotational speed and impact of tool pin profile on the tribological properties of friction stir welded AZ80A Mg alloy.
Pages 144-145
P. Sevvel, V. Jaiganesh
PDF (246 KB)



An investigation was conducted to find out the impact of the rotational speed and tool pin profile on the tribological properties of the friction stir welded AZ80A magnesium alloy joints. A series of FSW joints were fabricated using three different tool pin profiles at various tool rotational speeds. The tensile fracture surfaces are subjected to microstructural investigations. Additionally, detailed experimental measurements are also done on hardness & wear losses of the joints. The joints fabricated at 1000 rpm using the taper cylindrical pin profiled tool exhibited sound joints with better tensile strength, higher microhardness values and minimum wear losses.


Dry sliding wear of recycled carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites.
Q. Ahsan, M.L. Law, R. Farahiyan, N. Mohamad, H. Effendy, Sivarao
PDF (530 KB)



In this paper, the role of as-received (rCF-AR) and cryogenic treated (rCF-T) recycled carbon fiber (rCF) reinforcements were investigated on the tribological behavior of epoxy composites by using a micro pin-on-disc tribotester apparatus under dry sliding condition. The wear behavior of the composites was analyzed based on three different sliding velocities at a constant load and constant sliding distance. The results showed the reinforcement effect of rCF-T as compared to rCF-AR has enhanced the wear resistance of epoxy composite, which are attributed by the improved adhesion between the treated rCFs and epoxy matrix.


Abrasive wear rate on natural fibre composite.
Pages 148-149
M.A. Abu Bakar, M.A. Ahmad, S. Kasolang, N.R. Nik Roseley, N.R. Nik Mohd Masdek
PDF (445 KB)



This paper presents an experimental work to determine the effect of kenaf fibre loading in the polyester matrix through dry sliding test. These composites were produced by mixing raw kenaf fibre with polyester resin. The samples were prepared at 5 different weight percentages of fibre namely: (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 wt%). Abrasion Tester (TR-600) was used to carried out abrasive wear tests in dry sliding conditions. These tests were performed at 10N load and constant sliding velocity of 1.5m/s. The specific wear rates of natural fiber composites were obtained. The morphology of composite surface before and after tests was also examined using 3D microscope imaging.

Theme 5: Fuels, Lubricants and Lubrication

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Experimental analysis of antiwear property of 460cSt industrial mineral gear oil with MWCNT and ZnO nanoparticles using pin-on-disc apparatus.
Pages 150-152
Shubrajit Bhaumik, S.D. Pathak
PDF (634 KB)



In the present work, tribological study of nano particle based mineral oil has been carried out using pin-on-disk apparatus. Graphite(macro particles),multi wall carbon nano tube(MWCNT) and zinc oxide(ZnO) nano particles are used as additives on weight percentage basis(wt.%). It has been observed that MWCNT based lubricant sample shows significant decrease in frictional properties and wear than graphite based and pure mineral oil at an optimum additive concentration of 0.05wt.%. Flash point, fire point and viscosity also increases with the increase in addition of additives(nano and macro). SEM images shows high roughened surface in case of pure mineral oil and mineral oil with graphite as compared with nanoparticles based lubricant. 


Investigation of Demnum-based PFPE lubricant thickness tendency with mixture of additive on magnetic hard disk head-disk interface (HDI) tribological performance.
Pages 153-154
Y.H. Ooi, Y. Y. Por, A. Khairul, S.P. Yeap, N. Kazuo, W.L. Ng
PDF (464 KB)



A series of lube thickness matrix using Demnum-typed perfluoropolyether (PFPE) lubricant embedded with small traces of additive (ADOH) were evaluated so as to determine the head-disk interface (HDI) tribological performance of magnetic disks. The thickness of the main PFPE coated on the magnetic disks was varied from 6.5Å to 10.5Å, with the increment of 1.0Å for each condition. HDI tribological performance of these thin films in terms of flying characteristic and media durability were investigated based on the head touchdown, altitude-drag and burnish. The results obtained revealed that the HDI performance were strongly dependent on the lubricant thickness. 



Study of graphene nanolubricant using thermogravimetric analysis.
Pages 155-156
A.K. Rasheed, M. Khalid, W. Rashmi, T.C.S.M. Gupta, A. Chan
PDF (302 KB)



Thermal degradation of graphene based mineral oil lubricants was studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). As-synthesized graphene sheets of 8, 12, 60 nm thick, engine-oil formulation of API standard 20W50 SN/CF, SJ/CF and base mineral oils 150, 500, 2100 SUS were used for synthesizing various test samples. FTIR, XRD, FESEM, EDX, zeta potential and UV-vis spectrophotometry was used to characterize graphene and nanolubricants. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the weight loss in the presence of graphene could be delayed by more than 20 °C. Resistance to oil degradation depends strongly on graphene nanoparticle size, concentration and heating rates. Moreover, with the addition of graphene, SN/CF oil formulation shows better enhancement than SJ/CF under most parameters. The reasons for this phenomenon could be attributed to graphene's large surface area, stable dispersion and Brownian motion of graphene flakes.


Hydrodynamic lubrication of surface textured lubricated contacts with boundary slip using CFD.
Pages 157-158
M. Tauviqirrahman, Muchammad, A.W. Pratomo, J. Jamari, D.J. Schipper
PDF (392 KB)



In this paper, the effect of boundary slip and surface texturing on the lubrication performance is discussed, based on a CFD model.  In order to model hydrophobicity, the enhanced user-defined-function (UDF) in the FLUENT package was developed. It is shown that a hydrophobic textured surface is superior to a hydrophilic textured one.  The results also show that compared to a well-chosen complex boundary slip flat surface, a textured surface is still less efficient to increase the load support even if the hydrophobic property is used in the textured region.  



Numerical investigation of pocketed slip slider bearing with non-Newtonian lubricant.
Pages 159-160
A.W. Pratomo, Muchammad, M. Tauviqirrahman, J. Jamari, A.P. Bayuseno
PDF (396 KB)



In this study, the modified Reynolds equation for lubrication with non-Newtonian power-law fluid was proposed. The equation was solved numerically using a finite difference equation obtained by means of the   micro- control   volume   approach. Here, numerical computations for slider bearing with several power-law indexes were compared in the presence of the pocket and slip. The numerical results showed that the lowest index of the non-Newtonian lubrication model gives the best performance for lubricated pocket bearing considering boundary slip.


Effects of fuel additive to the fuel economy and emission in gasoline engine.
Pages 161-162
N.R. Abdullah, A.R. Asiah, A.J. Helmisyah, Z. Michael, M.A. Ahmad
PDF (382 KB)



One of the methods to improve the combustion behavior in internal combustion engine is by introducing additive to the base fuel.  However, some additive resulted in higher Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) and emission of CO and NOx. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of fuel additives quantity to the fuel economy and engine emission. The tests were carried out at different engine speeds (1500rpm-3000rpm) and different engine loads (40Nm - 100Nm) using a four stroke gasoline engine. The additive was blended with gasoline (RON95) in composition of 5, 10 and 15 milliliter per liter accordingly. BSFC was measured using Pro V2 software and exhaust emission was measured using MRU AIR gas analyzer. Results showed that gasoline blended with 5ml fuel additive lead to a significant improvement on (BSFC) and higher carbon dioxide (CO2) in its emission. Base fuel blended with 10ml/l and 15ml/l additive showed increasing in BSFC.  



Numerical investigation of the combined effects of slip and texture on tribological performance of bearing.
Pages 163-164
Susilowati, M. Tauviqirrahman, J. Jamari, A.P. Bayuseno
PDF (203 KB)



In order to enhance the load support and decrease the friction force, a combined textured surface bearing using boundary slip is discussed. A modified Reynolds equation with slip is adopted. The results show that combined techniques of slip and texture have a significant effect on the improvement of the tribological performance of bearing, that is, a high load carrying capacity but low friction force. The influences of the gap ratio of the bearing are also explored, and are found to significantly affect the lubrication behavior. In addition, it is shown that even with a parallel gap, high load support can also be produced.


Effect of lubricants and thermal resistance filler on the pressure and speed sensitivity characteristics of non-asbestos low metallic disc brake pad formulation.
Pages 165-166
M. Rahul Ragh, R. Vijay, Arvind Venkatramani, D. Lenin Singaravelu
PDF (455 KB)



In this work Non Asbestos Low Metallic Disc Brake pads are developed by varying the lubricant namely artificial graphite, thermal resistance filler Mica flakes and designated as LM01, LM02, and LM03. The various characterizations of the developed pads are done based on IS2742 and ISO6312 standards. The thermal stability is found using TGA. The fade and recovery characterizations are done based on JASO-C-406 standards in inertia brake dynamometer. It was observed that LM02 proved to be best with good thermal stability leading to low fade and high recovery characteristics. SEM studies helped to study the surface wear morphology.



Development of Otto-ATR Raman spectroscopy for thin lubricant films.
Pages 167-168
S. Yada, S. Maegawa, F. Itoigawa, T. Nakamura
PDF (587 KB)



In this study, Raman scattering signals from molecules in a thin lubricant film were measured by using a newly developed tribotester with the Otto-attenuated total reflection (ATR) configuration. This system employs a point contact between a transparent dove prism (N-SF11) and an aluminum ball. From the electric field enhancement effect based on the Otto-ATR configuration, a high sensitivity measurement of Raman scattering signals was realized under shearing of thin lubricant films.


SPR microscopy with ATR Otto configuration for observing thin boundary lubrication films.
Pages 169-170
J. Yamaguchi, S. Maegawa, F. Itoigawa, T. Nakamura
PDF (640 KB)



This study proposed a novel method for in-situ observation of thin boundary lubrication films based on the attenuated total reflection (ATR) in Otto configuration. The developed system was composed of the point contact between a high refractive index prism and a copper hemisphere, and other optical components. As sample oils, base oil (Hexadecane) and base oil with additives (1% Oleic acid) were used. The measurement of SPR spectrum allows making a quantitative analysis for identifying the value of thickness and coverage of adsorbed films.



Compensated hole-entry hybrid journal bearing by CFV restrictor under micropolar lubricants.
Pages 171-172
Nathi Ram, Satish C. Sharma, Arvind Rajput
PDF (419 KB)



The present work investigates the performance of compensated hole-entry hybrid journal bearing by constant flow valve (CFV) restrictor under micropolar lubricants. The Reynolds equation for micropolar lubricants has been solved with finite element technique. Performance of bearing has been evaluated as a function of external load . The simulated characteristics of bearing under micropolar lubricants have been compared with similar bearing under Newtonian lubricant. The results have been presented for the selected values of micropolar parameters  and . Simulated results indicate that the bearing under micropolar lubricants exhibits the increased values of characteristics than similar bearing under Newtonian lubricant.


Mechanism for increase in EHL oil film thickness by formation of sub-micrometer downsteps beside contact point.
Pages 173-174
H. Ishihara, T. Hirayama, T. Matsuoka
PDF (598 KB)



The mechanism of the increase in oil film thickness with a steel ball with sub-micrometer downsteps beside the contact point on a ball under point-contact elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) condition was investigated. The film thickness was measured using a disk-on-ball friction tester with optical interferometry. The Reynolds equation and finite element method were used to calculate the pressure and deformation distributions, respectively. The analytical results showed that the increase in the oil film thickness was due to the ball and disk taking a unique deformed shape. This restricted oil flow from the contact point, causing the film thickness to increase.



Rheological property of boundary layer formed by oiliness additive evaluated by a new rheometer with narrow clearance.
Pages 175-176
S. Shibata, Y. Hashimoto, T. Hirayama, T. Matsuoka
PDF (286 KB)



The recent increase in demand for effective lubricating oils that reduce friction and wear has led to a need for accurate evaluation of oil properties. To meet this need, a rheometer has been developed that can measure rheological properties at various sliding speeds. It has a surface-restricted aerostatic thrust bearing that enables the clearance between the upper and lower disks to be kept constant on the micron or submicron level during shear force measurement. It was used to investigate the rheological properties of lubricating oils with an additive. The experimental results showed that the viscosity of lubricating oils with an additive was lower than that without the additive regardless of sliding speed.


Effects of fuel additive quantity on fuel consumption and CO emissions of a 1.6L gasoline engine fuelled with RON97.
Pages 177-178
N.R. Abdullah, Muhammad Hanif Mat, Aman Mohd Ihsan Mamat, Idris Saad, Muhammad Faiz Mat
PDF (240 KB)



One of the methods to improve the combustion behavior for internal combustion engines is by introducing fuel additives. However, some additives resulted in higher Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) and higher emission of carbon monoxide (CO). The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of fuel additives quantity to the fuel consumption and engine emissions. The tests were carried out at different engine speeds (1500rpm-3000rpm) and constant engine loads of 60Nm by using a 1.6L multi-cylinder four stroke gasoline engine. The additive was blended with gasoline (RON97) in composition of 5, 10 and 15 ml per liter of RON97 accordingly. BSFC and engine emissions were measured using Pro V2 software and MRU AIR gas analyzer respectively. Results showed that gasoline blended with 5ml additive lead to a significant improvement on (BSFC) and lower carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. However, RON97 blended with 10ml/l and 15ml/l additive showed increasing in BSFC compared with 5 ml of additive.


New oil condition monitoring system, WearSens® enables continuous, online detection of critical operating conditions and wear damage.
Pages 179-180
Manfred Mauntz, Ulrich Kuipers, Jörn Peuser
PDF (500 KB)



A new oil sensor system is presented for the continuous, online measurement of the wear in turbines, industrial gears, generators, hydraulic systems and transformers. Detection of change is much earlier than existing technologies such as particle counting, vibration measurement or recording temperature. Thus targeted, corrective procedures and/or maintenance can be carried out before actual damage occurs. Efficient machine utilization, accurately timed preventive maintenance, increased service life and a reduction of downtime can all be achieved. 



Analyses of various viscosity effects to hydrodynamic lubrication in tube spinning process.
Pages 181-182
I. Nawi, B.A.M. Zain, W.A. Siswanto, N. Jaffery, H. Wahab
PDF (214 KB)



Four kind of lubricants with different viscosity were applied to the tube spinning process. A theoretical analysis based on the two dimensional isothermal Reynolds equation was developed for the hydrodynamic lubrication. Experimental was done on a lathe machine where the metal spinning was done. The results show that linear velocity of the forming tool and rotational velocity of the mandrel both influence the establishment of a hydrodynamic lubricant film thickness at the inlet zone. Formation of a hydrodynamic lubricant film thickness at the inside of the tube is ruled by the eccentricity of the mandrel and tube. Theoretical and experimental estimate the values film thickness. The comparison illustrates that they are related on lubricant viscosity, but not for spray lubricant type.   


Dynamic behavior of diesel spray during end-of-injection influence by ambient density and pressure fuel injection.
Pages 183-184
Mohd Al-Hafiz Mohd Nawi, Naoya Uwa, Yuki Ueda, Yuzuru Nada, Yoshiyuki Kidoguchi
PDF (396 KB)



The implementation of high boost pressure, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and fuel injection pressure to diesel engines will improve the performance of fuel efficiency and reduce exhaust emissions. Hence, the present study is conducted at a different parameter of injection pressure and ambient density into the spray chamber. A dual nano-spark shadowgraph method and rapid compression machine (RCM) has been carried out to simulate real diesel engine to further understand the dynamic behavior of atomization, evaporation and droplets size distribution at the spray boundary. Data was obtained at the timing of quasi-steady state at 2.1ms after end-of-injection (aEOI). Based on this analysis, the structure of diesel spray has improved the atomization and droplets distribution of non-evaporating spray after end-of-injection (aEOI) onwards and it will lead an efficient diesel combustion and emission formation. Furthermore, the liquid phase penetration of evaporating spray is hardly affected by ambient atmosphere and pressure fuel injection.


Lubricating oil deterioration on a four-ball test rig via on-line monitoring.
Pages 185-186
Y. Du, T.H. Wu, J. Cheng, R.J. Gong
PDF (555 KB)



Lubricating oil deterioration in operating machinery is a complicated and dynamic process. With oil ages, its performances attenuate. In this paper, the process of lubricating oil deterioration was investigated with an on-line monitoring system. A four-ball test was carried out to accelerate oil degradation, and three indexes including dynamic viscosity, permittivity and wear particle were monitored to record the aging process. As main results, oil degrades gradually and the selected indexes can characterize oil degradation from different aspects quantitatively.


Review of biodiesel standard development in Malaysia.
Pages 187-189
N. Tamaldin, M.F.B. Abdollah, H. Amiruddin, A.K. Mat Yamin, H.H. Masjuki, Z.M. Zulfattah
PDF (689 KB)



Biodiesel is one of the potential fuels of the future to overcome petroleum fuel depletion. At present, various standards were referred for Biodiesel fuel properties and testing method. Not all of these standards were found suitable for the tropical conditions in Malaysia, therefore called for development of Malaysian owned Biodiesel Standard. Previous research shows that several biodiesel properties such as density, kinematics viscosity, flash point, acid value and water content at ambient temperature at 25°C were worth investigated where contributed significantly to engine failure if not being properly addressed. A study on comparison of European EN 14214, American ASTM D6751, Japanese JIS K 2390 against Malaysian Standard MS 2008 were conducted. Results shows that Flash point, Density and Acid Value were found very similar while Kinematic Viscosity and Water Contents deviate away from all of the three European, American and Japanese Standards. However analysis on two properties sample (Flash Point and Density) found interesting differences in response of Higher Blend Ratio (HBR) Biodiesel, which need to be further, explored. Recommendations of Malaysian Standard were proposed to better suit Malaysian Scope, however need further investigation and clarification. 



Comparison of the frictional properties of nano-oil and SAE 15W40 oil diluted with biodiesel fuel.
Pages 190-191
M.I.H.C. Abdullah, M.F.B. Abdollah, N.R. Mat Nuri, H. Amiruddin, N. Tamaldin
PDF (472 KB)



The aim of this study is to investigate the friction properties of nano-oil and SAE 15W40 oil diluted with biodiesel fuel. An optimal composition of 0.5 vol.% 70nm hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) nanoparticles was dispersed into SAE15W40 oil and diluted by four difference percentages of B100 biodiesel fuel in the range of 5 to 20 vol.%. As a comparison, the SAE 15W40 oil was diluted by the same composition. The tribological test was performed using a four-ball tribometer. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used to determine the prominent wear mechanisms on the worn surfaces. It was found that the addition of biodiesel fuel increases both coefficient of friction (COF) of nano-oil and SAE 15W40 oil. However, the COF of SAE 15W40 oil is drastically increasing after diluting with 15 vol.% of biodiesel fuel, resulting in mild-to severe wear transition. 


Evaluations of piston ring wear using nano hexagonal boron nitride lubricant additives in small diesel engine.
Pages 192-193
M.I.H.C. Abdullah, M.F.B. Abdollah, H. Amiruddin, N. Tamaldin, N.R. Mat Nuri
PDF (551 KB)



The aim of this study is to evaluate the piston ring wear using 0.5 vol.% 70nm hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) nanoparticles additive, where homogeneously dispersed in SAE 15W40 diesel engine oil. The single cylinder diesel engine test was conducted using 20hp eddy current dynamometer (air cooled type). The wear of piston ring was evaluated by measuring the mass changes. The surface morphology was observed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). It was found that the wear of piston ring reduces approximately 50% when lubricated with nano-oil. Besides, surface damage of the piston ring due to adhesive wear type with intensive plastic deformation was less pronounced than for SAE 15W40 diesel engine oil.

Theme 6: Green Tribology

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AW/EP behavior of WS2 nanoparticles added to vegetable oil-based lubricant.
Pages 194-195
M. Gulzar, H.H Masjuki, M. Varman, M.A. Kalam, R.A. Mufti, Rehan Zahid, R. Yunus
PDF (503 KB)



Improvement in the anti-wear (AW) and extreme pressure (EP) ability of chemically modified jatropha oil (CMJO) by adding nanoparticles was experimentally evaluated. Nano-lubricants were synthesized by adding 1 wt% tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanoparticles to CMJO. The AW/EP ability of trial oils were evaluated using four-ball wear tests. Wear surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) along with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). The addition of 1 wt% oleic acid as surfactant (S) assisted in reducing the agglomerates. The addition of WS2 nanoparticles improved AW/EP properties of CMJO.


Non-edible palm oil: Alternative to mineral based lubricant in metal forming process.
Pages 196-198
M.A. Nurul, S. Syahrullail, D.M. Razak
PDF (528 KB)



In this paper, the effect of non-edible oil in cold extrusion process were investigated by cold work forward plane strain extrusion experiments. It then was compared to existing metal forming lubricant additive free paraffinic mineral oil, VG95 and commercial extrusion oil. A pair of taper die and a symmetrical work piece (billet) was placed inside extrusion rig which acted as main experimental apparatus. The experimental result shows that nonedible oil has similar maximum extrusion load with mineral based lubricant and commercial extrusion oil.



Tribology characteristic of hBN particle as an additive in modified jatropha oil as a sustainable metalworking fluids.
Pages 199-200
N. Talib, R. Md. Nasir, E.A. Rahim
PDF (473 KB)



Sustainable metalworking fluids have been used in the manufacturing industry due to the environmental concern and health impact. Bio-based oil is the suitable to replace petroleum-based oil in order to reduce the aforementioned problems. This study was focus on the investigation of wear and friction characteristics of modified jatropha oil (MJO). MJO was formulated at different molar ratio of trimethylolpropane and jatropha methyl ester to produce MJO1, MJO3 and MJO5. Next, a hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) was mixed with MJOs at different concentration.  The samples were tested by using four ball tribotester machine and compared with synthetic ester (SE). The result shows that the concentration of 0.05wt. % of hBN particles in MJO5 enhances the tribological performances. The mixture of hBN particles influenced the sliding effect by reducing the wear and friction.  This study shows that MJO has a potential to replace SE as a sustainable metalworking fluid.


Comparison of tribological performance of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) in poly-alpha-olefin (PAO) and palm oil-based trimethylopropane (TMP) ester.
Pages 201-202
Rehan Zahid, H.H. Masjuki, Mahendra Varman, R.A. Mufti, Md. Abul Kalam, Mubashir Gulzar, R. Yunus
PDF (543 KB)



Due to environmental legislations, automotive industry is striving hard to shift from mineral/synthetic oils to environmental friendly ones such as vegetable oils. In this study, effectiveness of ZDDP in enhancing the tribological properties of steel/steel contact, when used in combination with palm-oil based TMP ester, has been investigated and the results are compared with that of PAO. Friction and wear experiments were carried out using four-ball tribo-testing machine. TMP and TMP+PAO offered low values of friction compared to PAO. In addition, ZDDP-derived tribofilm was detected on the interacting surfaces, when TMP+PAO+ZDDP lubricant was used, resulting in decreased wear.


Cost evaluation on PVD coating during end milling of Inconel 718 under MQL condition.
Pages 203-204
M.S. Kasim, C.H. Che Haron, J.A. Ghani, M.A. Hadi, M.A. Ali, R. Izamshah, M. Minhat, T.J.S. Anand, T. Ito
PDF (445 KB)



This paper aims to promote environmentally friendly manufacturing areas without sacrificing productivity, by the application of biodegradable minimum quantity lubricant (MQL) coolant in end-milling Inconel 718. This study is carried out by comparing a machining cost and method of lubrication applied in the end-milling process. High-speed cutting of Inconel 718 was performed, according to response surface methodology (RSM). Later, the optimum condition of the PVD TiAlN/AlCrN coated carbide tool consumption and minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) are evaluated, based on the tool performance; i.e. machining time and material removed. In addition, the number of cutting tool edges is taken into consideration in the machining cost calculation. Machining performance at maximum tool life, minimum surface roughness and force are compared with the optimum condition, and the results show that the application of MQL and using ball-nose end mill under optimum condition is competitive. Since this type of tool has a high index number which reduces the number of cutting tools required drastically. The multi-objective optimization of cutting parameters, with regard to the criteria of the maximum material removed (9.029 cm3) and the lowest total cost ($11/100 cm3), gives the combination parameter that meets the requirement for green manufacturing; i.e. by reducing the usage of cutting tools and the amount of lubrication consumption. 



Graphene nanoplatelets in bio-based lubricant.
Pages 205-206
S.S.N. Azman, N.W.M. Zulkifli, H.H. Masjuki
PDF (574 KB)



This paper investigated the effects of graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) as additives in trimethylolpropane (TMP) ester blended in polyalphaolefin (PAO), where different concentrations of GNP were used and tested on fourball tribotester. Addition of 0.05wt% GNP in PAO resulted in the lowest COF and WSD, thus selected as the optimum concentration of GNP in lubricant to be added in blended lubricants consisting of 85% PAO and 15% TMP. The tribological behaviors of GNP in blended lubricants were studied and frictions were reduced by 4.16% at RT and 3.22% at 75˚C. However, GNP does not behave as wear reducer to the lubricants.


Tribological performance of raw and chemically modified RBD palm kernel.
Pages 207-208
A.N. Farhanah, S. Syahrullail, N. Sapawe
PDF (665 KB)



This study compared the tribological performance of RBD palm kernel as alternative lubricant. Further, the analysis of chemically modified palm kernel oil with zinc-dialkyl-dithio-phosphate (ZDDP) additive was carried out to determine its lubricity performance by using modified pin-on-disc tester. Commercial mineral oil SAE 40 was used as reference lubricant. The experiment conditions include sliding speed, normal load, weight percentage of ZDDP, and lubricant’s quantity. The findings reveal that the RBD palm kernel oil has better lubricity performance compared with mineral oil. The addition of ZDDP exhibited good friction reduction and anti-wear properties compared with raw RBD palm kernel oil.



The feasibility study of CaCO3 derived from cockleshell as nanoparticle in chemically modified lubricant.
Pages 209-210
N.A. Zainal, N.W.M. Zulkifli, M. Yusoff , H.H. Masjuki, R. Yunus
PDF (404 KB)



Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is one of the most abundant minerals in nature. CaCO3 nanoparticles were synthesized from cockle shells. The tribological properties of the CaCO3 nanoparticles as an additive in bio-based lubricant were evaluated with a four-ball tester. The bio-based lubricant is a mixture of PAO and 5% palm oil-based TMP ester. The results show that these CaCO3 nanoparticles improved the tribological properties of bio-based lubricant. The optimum concentration of CaCO3 nanoparticles is 8 wt.%. The results show that a boundary film mainly composed of CaCO3, CaO, and iron oxide was formed on the worn surface during the friction process to protect the surface.


Friction and wear characteristics of recycled aerocomposite carbon fibre reinforced polypropylene composites.
Pages 211-212
A.A. Latiff, N.Mohamad, A.R. Jeefferie, M.H.M. Nasir, S. Siti Rahmah, M.A. Mahamood, M.I.H.C. Abdullah, M.F.B. Abdollah
PDF (603 KB)



Incineration or disposal of carbon fiber waste from the aircraft industry lead to serious energy consumption and environmental pollution. The use of this waste as reinforcement is a wise approach to appreciate the high performance of the carbon fiber. In this study, the sliding wear and frictional behavior of recycled aerocomposites grade carbon fiber prepreg (rCFP) reinforced polypropylene prepared via melt compounding method using an internal mixer were studied. The samples were categorized into polypropylene reinforced by carbon fiber with resin (A) and carbon fiber without resin (B). Pin on disc method was utilized to evaluate the effect of rCFP content and fiber state on tribological performance of the composites. The results were supported by morphological analyses using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). It was found that polymer composites B for rCFP without resin exhibited better tribological performance than composites category-A. The addition of rCFP into polypropylene was observed to increase its wear resistance with minimum coefficient of friction was achieved at 3 wt. % of rCFP content for both polymer composites.



Addition of ZDDP in corn oil as lubricant physical property improver.
Pages 213-214
N.R. Mat Nuri, Q.N. Suffian, M.F.H.M. Saroji, M.A. Azhari
PDF (545 KB)



Newly developed lubricant was produced by introducing Zinc Dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) into commercialized corn oil. ZDDP added acted as a physical property improver which lowers the kinematic viscosity and reduces coefficient of friction. The newly developed oil was tested with a kinematic viscometer while characterized using a pin on disc tribometer. Corn oil with 2 wt% ZDDP and 5 wt% ZDDP showed a decreasing trend of coefficient of friction with increment of applied load on the pin on disc test. Corn oil with 2 wt% ZDDP showed a desirable kinematic viscosity value of 36.3 cSt.


Preliminary studies on physical property of canola oil + ZDDP as bio-lubricant.
Pages 215-216
M.A. Azhari, S.H. Zainal, M.F.H.M Saroji, N.R. Mat Nuri
PDF (464 KB)



Physical properties of canola oil added with Zinc Dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) as bio-lubricant was investigated. Commercialized canola oil added with 0 wt%, 2 wt% and 5 wt% ZDDP were prepared and tested in a rotating disc electrode spectroscopy (RDE) and a heated viscometer. The blending method has been a success proven by the increment on zinc and phosphorous concentration observed by RDE. Canola oil with addition of 2 wt% ZDDP showed a promising kinematic viscosity value of 38.63 cSt which is lower compared to canola oil without any addition of ZDDP.



Comparison of physical and tribological properties of coconut oils extracted from dry and wet processing.
Pages 217-219
D. Gasni, I. H. Mulyadi, Jon Affi
PDF (239 KB)



Due to less water content during its processing, RCO would have a good physical and tribological properties. However, the information related to lubrication capability of RCO is still limited. In addition, abundant source of coconut oil in Indonesia can be exploited to develop bio-lubricant for industrial usage. Thus, this present study was conducted to investigate the benefit of dry processing in extracting coconut oil and to compare coconut oil extracted through wet processing. The result highlighted that dry processing could be able to improve lubricating capabilities of coconut oil.


Preliminary study of friction and wear on natural oil-based lubricants.
Pages 220-221
M.I.R. Azmi, B.T. Tee, N.A.B. Masripan, C.T. Chong
PDF (204 KB)



Nowadays, natural oil-based is much desired for its application as a lubricant in metal forming processes, a renewable resource and has high biodegradability compared to mineral oil. Other good characteristics include sustainability and eco-friendly. Therefore, it is important to study their tribological properties and perhaps can provide other alternative to replace mineral oils as lubricant. This paper presents the preliminary study for natural oil-based lubricant which in this case are refined glycerine, oleic methyl ester and crude glycerol. The study concentrated on friction and wears tests and was carried out using a four-ball tester.



EDS analysis of tribofilm formed on self-mated stainless steel lubricated by palm biodiesel.
Pages 222-223
Z. Fuadi, T. Takeno, K. Adachi, M. Tadjuddin
PDF (335 KB)



A ball on disk tribometer was used to investigate the wear of self-mated stainless steel lubricated by palm methyl ester (PME) mixed diesel oil. It is found that the wear resistance of the material is improved with the presence of palm methyl ester content in the diesel oil. EDS analyses were conducted to analyze the tribofilm formed on the contact interface of the ball. The results indicate the existence of metallic film mainly consisted of Mn on the worn surface of the ball lubricated by diesel oil without PME. On the other hand, the trace of Mn on the worn surface is much smaller in the case where palm methyl ester is mixed in the diesel oil.


Innovision in ecotribology: Biomimetic approaches.
Pages 224-225
I.C. Gebeshuber
PDF (487 KB)



The approach to innovation in tribology needs to be strongly connected to strategic long-term planning. Approaches based on biomimetic inspiration can steer the field into a very profitable future, combined with benefits for the whole biosphere. In the future there will be more money than ever spent on energy, but it is up to the “innovision” in the field how much of these funds will actually flow into tribology and contribute to an improvement of the human condition. In this respect the future of technological development strongly depends on properly analyzing emerging trends and issues.



Characterized and toxicity study of carbon nanotubes synthesis from fermented tapioca for tribological applications.
Pages 226-227
I. Nurulhuda, R. Poh, M.Z. Mazatulikhma, M. Rusop
PDF (396 KB)



Carbon nanotubes were first introduced by Ijima in 1991. From that day, it was widely used in many fields such as engineering, physics and medical fields, including improving tribological behavior and material mechanical properties for orthopedic used. Many precursors varied from solid to liquid used to synthesis it. In current study, carbon nanotube was successfully synthesized by using natural source precursor, fermented tapioca. The synthesized carbon nanotubes were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, FESEM, FTIR and TGA in order to study the physical and chemical properties before subjected to cells toxicity screening on neuroblastoma cells.


Structural properties of graphene from green carbon source via Thermal Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD).
Pages 228-229
M.J. Salifairus, S.B. Abd Hamid, T. Soga, Salman A.H. Alrokayan, Haseeb A. Khan, M. Rusop
PDF (560 KB)



The most common carbon source is graphite oxide in synthesis the graphene layers. This study proposed palm oil as the best new source as a carbon feedstock which is more cheaper, green and bio-renewable resources. The palm oil was placed in the first furnace (precursor furnace) and the 2 cm x 2 cm Nickel seeded substrate was placed in the second furnace (deposition furnace). The furnaces were heated to 450oC and range from 1000oC to 1100oC for first and second furnaces consecutively.  Argon gas acted as carrier gas to carry the carbon atom towards the Nickel substrate. After several minutes synthesis time, both furnaces were switched off for cooling process. The as-synthesized graphene was characterized in confirming its properties using Atomic Force Microscopy and Raman Spectrometer. Raman spectra show that D peak appears at ~1345 cm-1 and G peak appears at ~1595 cm-1. From the results, it shows that palm oil is the one of the most promising renewable natural carbon sources available to synthesize the graphene.


Development of a versatile mechanical property testing platform.
Pages 230-231
Wanxin Sun
PDF (507 KB)



Eco-friendly and bio-degradable lubricants and additives have gained tremendous attention in recent years due to sustainability awareness. Implementing green solutions for oil and lubricants has become mandatory due to high regulatory controls. To meet these requirements, extensive tribology tests are needed. Tribology tests usually need to mimic real situations in terms of load, speed and lubrication. However, current tribology tools are designed for a specific experiment only such as four-ball testing for lubricant; making it difficult for Tribologists to assess different aspects of an object under scrutiny without multiple testing tools. Other drawbacks include low usage of each tool, waste of lab space, tests cannot be done on the same location or same material, making it difficult to correlate different properties which is critical in understanding the mechanism behind. In this article, we report the development of a versatile testing platform which covers most standard tests ranging from lubricant, coating reliability, friction and wear on mechanical parts to tribology test under controlled environment such as temperature, gas and electrochemical environment.

Theme 7: Surface, Coatings and Interface

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FEM analysis in identifying the turning parameters for dimple structure fabrication.
Pages 232-233
Mohd Nor Azam Mohd Dali, Jaharah A. Ghani, Che Hassan Che Haron
PDF (253 KB)



The application of Third Wave Advant Edge software is very helpful and effective in determining the suitable range of cutting condition and to minimize the number of experiment in producing dimple sturucture using turning process. Orthogonal array in Taguchi method is utilized to accommodate the cutting parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and vibration frequency to carry out the simulation. The input values of cutting tool geometries were similar with past studies. Approximately there are 20 ranges of cutting parameters of speed and feed rate tested to obtain the cutting force vs the length of cut that lead to rough estimation of dimple structure sizes for the actual machining. Dynamic frequency is tested in order to observe the potential use of low frequency which  is based on the ability and stability of the vibration assisted tooling developed in the range of 15 – 25 Hertz. From the simulation, the machining parameters with cutting speed of 4 – 35 m/min, feed rate of 0.01 – 0.6 mm/rev and depth of cut of 0.01 – 0.05 mm are found  suitable for dimple fabrication for A3xx casting Aluminum alloy based on the shape of cutting force graph.


Characteristics of PVD CrAlN thin film on Al-Si piston alloy.
Pages 234-235
Q.M. Mehran, A.R. Bushroa, M.A. Fazal
PDF (582 KB)



CrAlN coatings are the foremost coating material used for automotive applications where mechanical properties such as hardness, roughness, adhesion are significant. In this research work thin film CrAlN coating is deposited by PVD magnetron sputtering technique and to evaluate the mechanical properties of CrAlN coating on Al-Si piston alloy. The microstructural, topographical analysis and composition of CrAlN coatings were examined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images were taken from the substrate surface before and after the coating. The scratch adhesion of film-to-substrate was measured by using scratch machine.


Comparative study of conventional blasting in Labuan Shipyard and Engineering (LSE): Reliability of recycled garnet.
Pages 236-237
Nur Hidayatul Nadhirah Elmi Azham Shah, Ali Saman, Muhammad Hussain Ismail
PDF (226 KB)



Abrasive media is a key element in conventional blasting process. Despite the numerous types of abrasive media used in blasting, garnet remains popular in this surface preparation process. Garnet which is a semi-precious stone emits no known health hazard, a type of abrasive media that could be recycled for reuse. This study views the difference between new and recycled garnet and the result indicates that the profile achieve by recycled garnet falls a little short, as the garnet particles became smaller after the blasting process, however, it is still in the acceptable range as stated in the procedure of the construction project.


Investigation into effect of silicon morphology on surface roughness while machining Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloy.
Pages 238-239
M. Marani Barzani, A.A.D. Sarhan, S. Ramesh, I. Maher, S. Farahany
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Surface roughness is one of the key measures in manufacturing that describes machined surface integrity. In this research work, the effect of silicon morphology on surface roughness when turning Al-11%Si-1.8%Cu alloy and Sr-containing alloys was investigated. The experiments are carried out under oblique dry cutting conditions using a PVD TIN-coated insert at three cutting speeds of 70, 130 and 250 m/min, feed rates of 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 mm/rev, and 0.05 mm constant depth of cut. The result released that surface roughness decreased with adding 0.04 wt.% Sr to casting. The surface roughness values reduce with cutting speed increment from 70 m/min to 250 m/min. Also, the surface finish deteriorated with increase in feed rate from 0.5 mm/rev to 0.15 mm/rev.


White layer thickness prediction in WEDM-ANFIS modelling.
Pages 240-241
Ibrahem Maher, Ahmed A.D. Sarhan, Houriyeh Marashi, Mohsen Marani Barzani, M. Hamdi
PDF (518 KB)



Wire Electric Discharge Machining (WEDM) is a nontraditional technique by which the required profile is acquired using spark energy. Regarding wire cutting, precision machining is necessary to achieve high product quality. White Layer Thickness (WLT) is one of the most important factors for assessing superior surface finish. In this research, Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) was used to predict the WLT in WEDM using coated wire electrode. The predicted data were compared with measured values, and the average prediction error for WLT was 2.61 %.


Enhanced surface roughness of AISI D2 steel machined using nano-powder mixed electrical discharge machining.
Pages 242-243
Houriyeh Marashi, Ahmed A.D. Sarhan, Ibrahem Maher, M. Sayuti, M. Hamdi
PDF (709 KB)



Manufacturing geometrically complex components with high strength and high wear resistance is an essential requirement in fabricating heavy-duty industrial components. Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is a non-conventional machining technique with the potential to machine any conductive material regardless of hardness property. This experiment concentrates on Powder Mixed EDM (PMEDM), where a specific concentration of titanium powder is added to the dielectric. The effect of adding powder is investigated on machined surface roughness. It is revealed that for 120 µsec and 210 µsec spark durations, the impact of titanium particles significantly improves the Ra and Rz of the AISI D2 steel machined surface. However, increasing the spark duration to 340 µsec leads to surface roughness deterioration owing to debris particles adhering onto the surface.


Laser surface texturing on ceramic coating.
Pages 244-245
Juyana A Wahab, M.J. Ghazali, W.M.W. Yusoff, Z. Sajuri
PDF (404 KB)



In recent years, ceramic coating with well-defined surface structures have been prepared in order to combine the advantages of protective coatings and the beneficial effects of surface texturing. Surface texturing is a new way to modify surface characteristic that lead to an improvement in properties of material parts particularly for tribological characteristics. The formation of specific patterned surface can be achieved in many ways, for example abrasive blasting, reactive-ion etching, and ultrasonic machining. However, in this paper, only the laser technology will be the main focus topic as it offers the most control and precision over the produced geometry. The technique also did not involve chemical reagents or produce significant waste.


Effect of surface texture on the tribological performance of DLC coating.
Pages 246-247
A. Arslan, H.H. Masjuki, M. Varman, A. Kalam, R.A. Mufti, M. Gulzar, M.M. Quazi
PDF (513 KB)



In the present study, the effect of indirect laser texturing on the tribological performance of diamond like carbon coatings has been investigated. Micro dimples were created before DLC coating was deposited. Dimple diameters were changed while keeping density and depth constant, in order to study the effect of change in dimension on the coating performance. The results indicate that optimum surface texturing parameters reduces the friction and wear at the contact. Dimple diameter of 100 µm increased the wear resistance of DLC by lowering the wear particle induced graphitization.


Substrate temperature impact towards carbon overcoat properties and corrosion performance in magnetic recording media.
Pages 248-250
Amalina Balqis, Mun-Sing Fan, M. Shapuan M. Yusop, W.S. Khoo, Lawrence Ng Wah, Kazuo Nimura
PDF (583 KB)



Effect of temperature on the properties of carbon overcoat (COC) films deposited by filament type PECVD technique was studied. Raman spectrometry and Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) were used to determine the chemical bonding structural change of the COC films. It was found that the increasing substrate temperature from 137 to 204°C transformed gradually DLC films into a graphitic structure. Graphitization of DLC films induced by temperature caused the formation of a large fraction of sp2 cluster in the COC films, which is a factor influencing galvanic (Cobalt) corrosion. Rich sp2 cluster acted as a conductor in the films which is also confirmed by conductive atomic force microscope (c-AFM) where higher current flow was observed.


Theoretical investigation of texture depth effect on the lubrication performance in slip pocketed bearing including cavitation.
Pages 251-252
Muchammad, M. Tauviqirrahman, A.W. Pratomo, J. Jamari, D.J. Schipper
PDF (702 KB)



This paper show results of the investigation on the combined effect of the pockets and boundary slip for simple parallel sliding bearings including cavitation. Cavitation was of particular interest with respect to pressure generation and shear stress. It was shown that slip over the whole surface could retard the presence of cavitation and therefore the generated pressure and shear stress can be optimal.


Clarification the effects of oxygen to carbon ratio on wear mechanism of diamond-like carbon under pressurized hot water.
Pages 253-254
M.Z.M. Rody, K. Okuno, N. Umehara, N. Inayoshi, K. Sasaki, S. Kawara, H. Kousaka, X. Deng
PDF (571 KB)



In this paper, the influence of dissolved oxygen concentration amount by means of sputtering depth profile on the wear rate of a hydrogened Diamond-like Carbon coating (commonly known as DLC) has been studied. The sliding  test was performed using a self-developed sliding tester move like pendular, where the DLC coated pins was slid on stainless steel plate (SUS316) at 23˚C,100˚C, 200˚C,and 300˚C in pressurized water environment. The results show that the most crucial factor, affecting the wear rate of DLC coating under sliding in water, devided by two categories. Effect of mechanical wear (graphitization and adhesive wear) was a dominant for low dissolved oxygen concentration. In contrast, above 200 in rich O2 water temperature, the graphitization and oxidation wear of DLC has a dominant role on DLC wear rate where friction enhanced oxidation with temperature.


Diamond like carbon deposition process optimization for media disk corrosion performance.
Pages 255-256
W.S. Khoo, R. Md. Nasir, M.R. Zaidi, W.L. Ng
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Carbon thickness reduction activity is important to reduce the magnetic spacing in hard disk drive. However, thinner carbon overcoat thickness is susceptible to galvanic corrosion from the magnetic underlayer. Process optimization of the deposition chamber is important to obtain an overcoat carbon thickness with good corrosion resistance. The corrosion performance relationship between different process parameter was investigated.  


Influences of carbon content within TiCxN1-x coating to adhesivity onto tungsten carbide substrate.
Pages 257-258
P.C. Siow, J.A. Ghani, C.H. Che Haron, M.J. Ghazali, T.R. Jaafar
PDF (527 KB)



TiCN is a popular hard coating for cutting tool in various applications. This paper study the influence of carbon content within the TiCxN1-x coatings to its adhesivity strength onto tungsten carbide substrate. TiCxN1-x coatings were custom made in-house through cathodic arc physical vapour deposition (CAPVD) with various CH4/N2 ratios. The coating composition, intensity of element, and adhesivity strength were characterised. It was found that the adhesivity strength of TiCxN1-x coatings was increased with the carbon content within a coating.


Surface roughness of AlSi/AlN metal matrix composite material using the Taguchi method.
Pages 259-260
M.S. Said, J.A. Ghani, N.N Wan, C.H. Che Haron
PDF (534 KB)



This paper presents the surface roughness of aluminum silicon alloy (AlSi) matrix composite reinforced with aluminum nitride (AlN) using three types of carbide inserts. Experiments were conducted at various cutting speeds, feed rates, and depths of cut, according to the Taguchi method, using a standard orthogonal array L27 (34). Signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and ANOVA were applied to study the characteristic performance of cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut, and tool types in measuring surface roughness during milling. The surface roughness of the machined surface were observed using Mitutoyo Formtracer CS-500. Analytical results using the Taguchi method showed that enhanced surface roughness could be obtained using low feed rate, medium depth of cut, low cutting speed, and TiB2 insert. Optimal surface roughness was obtained under the following machining parameters: cutting speed, 230 m/min; feed rate, 0.4 mm/tooth; depth of cut, 0.5 mm, and TiB2 insert.


A study on powder-pack boronizing of 316 stainless-steel ball bearing.
Pages 261-262
N.H. Omar, R. Hasan, N.A.B. Masripan
PDF (546 KB)



In this present study, 10 mm diameter of 316 stainless-steel is used in powder-pack boronizing by using solid medium boron, Ekabor 1. The boronizing experiment is carried out in a high temperature furnace at 850, 900 and 950 oC for 2, 4 and 6 hours. Powder condition and powder-pack surrounding are also featured in this study to analyze the effective powder usage of the treatment. Borided layer surface is characterized using XRD analysis and SEM micrographs. The hardness, wear properties and kinetics atoms of diffusion using Arrhenius equation will be determined in this study. Preliminary results showed hardness of boronized sample is higher than the untreated sample.


Interconnect material preparation via milled and ultrasonically Fe80Cr20 alloy powder.
Pages 263-264
A.M. Leman, I. Baba, B. Abu Bakar, R. Rahmad, D. Feriyanto, D. Sebayang
PDF (345 KB)



Fe80Cr20 alloy powder prepared by ball milling and ultrasonic technique and was analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Particle Size Analyzer (PSA) and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). Ball milling prepared under nitrogen gas (N2) as Process Control Agent (PCA) in milling time of 60 h. Ultrasonic is conducted under atmospheric environment in open circuit machine. Finer surface structure which obtained after ultrasonically treatment. Smallest particle size of 5.23 µm and distribution of 89.57% is achieved using combination between ball milling (Milled 60 h) and ultrasonic technique (UT). TGA result shows that sample after milled 60 h and combination technique decrease mass gain up to 51% and 63% as compared to raw material as well as 49% and 62% as compared to UT samples.  


Preparation and characterization of TIG-alloyed hybrid composite coatings for high temperature solid lubrication.
Pages 265-267
K.A. Bello, M.A. Maleque, Z. Ahmad, A.A. Adebisi, S. Mirdha
PDF (346 KB)



There is an ongoing need in tribology community for developing high performance composite coating to control friction and wear under severe conditions of modern dry-sliding system which requires high operating temperature and long life. The present work is an attempt to employ powder preplacement and tungsten inert gas (TIG) torch melting technique to generate titanium carbide (TiC) based hybrid composite coating with the addition of hexagonal boron nitride(hBN) or Ni-coated hBN (Ni-P-hBN) lubricant powders. The morphology and composition of the developed coatings were investigated. Moreover, the hardness and high temperature wear characteristics of the hybrid coatings at 600oC are studied. The results indicate that TIG-melted surfaces containing TiC and Ni-P-hBN exhibits optimum properties combining good control of microstructures and uniformly distributed hardness as well as stable tribological properties.


Characterisation of surface modification on titanium alloys for dental implant application.
Pages 268-270
A. Jemat, M.J. Ghazali, M. Razali, Y. Otsuka
PDF (567 KB)



Titanium (Ti) and its alloys have been extensively applied as dental implant materials under load-bearing conditions due to their outstanding properties. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of two types of surface modifications; acid etching and plasma spray coating on the surface finish of the titanium alloys. Acid etchings were carried out by varying the types of acids. In the plasma spray, a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) was chosen as a coating material. All treated surfaces were characterised by an X-ray diffraction (XRD), a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a roughness tester.  It was noted that the coated surface with 7.78 µm was significantly rougher than the etched surface, ranging from 0.137 µm - 3.986 µm.


Corrosion behavior and pechanical properties of duplex coating Ti6Al4V/TiAlBN.
Pages 271-272
Yusliza Yusuf, Zulkifli Mohd. Rosli, Jariah Mohamad Juoi, Nooririnah Omar
PDF (523 KB)



Duplex coating of Ti6Al4V alloy was conducted with the aim of improving the corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of the alloy. In this study, plasma nitriding of Ti6Al4V was performed using a microwave plasma technique at 600oC for 1 and 3 hours, then followed by deposition of TiAlBN for duplex coating purposes. Microstructural analysis revealed that  the duplex coating process produces a relatively smooth and crack free modified surface layer which is believed able to inhibit the occurrence of corrosion process. The duplex surface obtained has superior surface hardness property, especially for samples with the longer nitriding time.


A study on effect of laser textured cast iron surfaces on reducing friction and wear.
Pages 273-274
N.A.M. Lazim, S.E.M. Kamal, R. Hasan
PDF (705 KB)



The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the geometry and distributions of dimples on the frictional behavior of cast iron surfaces for applications in automotive engines under lubricated condition. Laser surface texturing method will be used to create micro dimples with various dimensions on cast iron surface. The pin on disc tester will be used to measure the friction and sliding wear properties. A comparison will be made between the performance of reference non-textured piston rings and optimum surface textured of piston rings. The density area of dimple is expected to reduce friction and wear up to certain value.


Analysis of sliding contact temperature for roughness surface.
Pages 275-277
S.Y. Chern, J.H. Horng, H.J. Tsai, C.H. Tsai
PDF (662 KB)



In this work, the Finite Element Method (FEM) is used to analysis contact temperature of multiply asperity sliding contact surface. The following parameters are included: pressure, roughness, sliding speed, friction coefficient, and thermal conductivity. Analysis results show that pressure and thermal conductivity play the most important role on affecting maximum temperature rise parameter. In addition, regression equations are used to study the effect of study parameters on the contact temperature for roughness surface. The effects of contact pressure and thermal conductivity on the contact temperature increases as the Peclet number increases.


Characterization of thermal barrier coating on piston crown for high temperature internal combustion engine.
Pages 278-279
Helmisyah Ahmad Jalaludin, Muhammad Akmal Fahmi Mohammad, Salmiah Kasolang, Shahrir Abdullah
PDF (219 KB)



High temperature and pressure produced in an internal combustion engine may lead to high thermal stresses. A piston may need to be coated to avoid fails operation due to insufficient heat transfer. Common material that used as a material for Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) is Yttria Partially Stabilized Zirconia (YPSZ) and a ceramic based material called Mullite which has very good properties against high temperature application. In this work, the usage of Mullite and YPSZ were compared to improve the performance of TBC and were plasma sprayed on piston crown (AC8A aluminium alloys) in order to reduce thermal stresses. Those samples were deposited with NiCrAl bonding layers prior to coating of Mullite and YPSZ some samples is remained uncoated for comparison purpose. Detailed analyses (microstructure and hardness) on the deposited coating were examined and studied.


The effect of macro-rivet textures on tribological performances.
Pages 280-281
M.N.A.M. Yusoff, H.H. Masjuki, N.W.M. Zulkifli
PDF (546 KB)



This study examines the tribological effect of macro-rivet textures on a surface. The rivet textures of mild steel plate were produced using milling process with different size and density. The sizes of rivet used in this study are 0.006 m and 0.009 m of diameter and density of rivet are 10%, 20% and 40%. The experiment was performed on a simple tribometer to measure friction at variable speed from 0.146-2.012 m/s. Based on the study, it was found that the plate of with size of 6mm and density of 10% give lowest friction force with 24% reduction to achieve better tribological performances in sliding contact.


3D modeling of rough surface from the measurement data.
Pages 282-283
Kartini, E. Saputra, R. Ismail, J. Jamari, A.P. Bayuseno
PDF (254 KB)



Surface is an important object of tribologycal research. Analyzing the real surface can be performed by finite element method. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model of real surface can be constructed from measurement data. The aim of this research is to create an interface tool so that the 3D surface measurement data is used to develop the 3D finite element model. Next, many tribologycal analyzes may be performed easily toward the developed surface.


Hydrogen permeation into bearing steels under sliding.
Pages 284-285
H. Tanaka, T. Komatsu, J. Sugimura
PDF (600 KB)



This paper describes studies on hydrogen uptake under sliding contact. Sliding tests were conducted with 52100 steel and 440C stainless steel in hydrogen and in vacuum, with and without a lubricant. Hydrogen dissolved in the specimens after sliding were analyzed with thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Hydrogen content increased by sliding, suggesting that dissociation of hydrogen and the oil occurred by the catalytic action at sliding surfaces. The TDS spectrum indicated that the hydrogen dissolved was diffusible hydrogen. It was also found that hydrogen uptake appeared to decrease after the early stage of sliding. Another series of tests were made with heat-treated steel specimens. It was shown that TDS spectrum changed with annealing, which suggested that the hydrogen originally contained the steels was eliminated and trap sites for hydrogen changed. The decomposition of hydrogen and lubricant molecules, and the effect of oxide films at the surfaces on hydrogen uptake are discussed.


Improved cold sprayed CoNiCrAlY bond coat in thermal barrier coating.
Pages 286-287
A. Manap, N.F. Afandi, S.N.A. Yusof
PDF (370 KB)



An improved CoNiCrAlY bond coat in thermal barrier coating (TBC) was developed by fabricating the bond coat under optimized condition using cold spray (CS). The smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method was used to model CoNiCrAlY deposition and estimate the optimum velocity which is normally obtained via costly and time consuming experiments. The performance of TBC with bond coat cold sprayed under optimized condition was assessed. It was found that the TBC exhibit slow growing undulated TGO with minimal mixed oxide. The improved CS bond coat can reduce the probability of spallation of the top coat and the failure of TBC.


Tribological analysis of touch experience about various fabrics.
Pages 288-289
M.S. Kim, Y.Z. Lee
PDF (591 KB)



Touch feeling is closely related with several of surface properties of human skin and materials. For example, the surface topography, such as roughness, fineness affects to tactile sensibility of people, and also the compatibility between skin and surfaces are important factor determining the frictional characteristics and emotional perception. In this paper, finger friction measurements on some fabric surfaces were made. In addition, emotional feedbacks are also studied. The relation between above two are studied with statistical method and this paper suggested that experimental results can explain how people recognize many different signatures of material surfaces.


Tribological study of nanoporous amorphous boron carbide film prepared by pulsed plasma CVD.
Pages 290-291
S. Liza, N. Ohtake, H. Akasaka, J.M. Munoz-Guijosa, H.H. Masjuki
PDF (507 KB)



In this work, the tribological behavior of nano porous a-BC:H films are studied and compared with those in conventional DLC films. a-BC:H films were deposited by pulsed plasma chemical vapor deposition using  B(CH3)3 gas as boron source. A DLC interlayer was used to prevent the a-BC:H film delamination produced by oxidation. Tribological test results indicate that the a-BC:H films show an excellent boundary oil lubricated behavior, with lower friction coefficient and qualitatively comparable wear rate than those on the DLC film. The formation of micropores from the original nanopores during boundary regimes explains this better performance. Results show that porous a-BC:H films may be an alternative for segmented DLC films in applications where severe tribological conditions and complex shapes exist, so surface patterning is unfeasible.


Direct observation of adsorbed additive layer at solid-liquid interface by frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy.
Pages 292-293
K. Fujino, R. Kawamura, T. Matsuoka, T. Hirayama, H. Onishi
PDF (419 KB)



Although an adsorbed additive layer is known to reduce friction, the layer structure on a metal surface is still unclear. In particular, there have been no studies that succeeded in obtaining cross-sectional images of an adsorbed layer in lubricant. This study used frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM) to obtain in-situ images. Hexadecane and palmitic acid were used as a model base oil and a typical oil additive, respectively, and a copper-coated silicon wafer was used as the target surface. A clear cross-sectional image of the solid-liquid interface was obtained. It showed that the additive layer was initially monolayer. Then, as the concentration of palmitic acid was increased, the additive layer grew into a multilayer.


Tribological properties of polymer overlay coated on the micro-textured metal substrate.
Pages 294-295
J. Ishihara, Y. Horiba, K. Enomoto, H. Usami
PDF (550 KB)



The present study describes fundamental tribological properties of polymer overlay coated on the micro-textured metal surface. The tribological properties were evaluated with a 3-ball-on-disc type testing apparatus in poor lubricated condition. Effects of substrate texture fabricated with a micro shot peening and a roller burnishing on friction behavior were discussed. Moreover, in the case of dispersing solid lubricant into overlay layer, effect on the durability of overlay layer was also evaluated. As results, the substrate texture resulted in the increase of the adhesion strength and the stabilization of the friction coefficient of the overlay. Although the adhesion strength decreased by dispersing solid lubricant, the subsurface micro texture restricted the peeling of the overlay and further decrease of the friction coefficient was achieved.


Research on thermal stability of DLC by using in-situ Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope.
Pages 296-297
X. Deng, H. Izuoka, H. Kousaka, N. Umehara
PDF (452 KB)



It is necessary to attach importance to the thermal stability of DLC, when it is applied as a protecting coating in high temperature environment. It has been reported that ta-C coating shows excellent thermal stability among the DLCs, and it can endure the temperature up to 400ºC in air. However, the mechanism of its deterioration was not investigated clearly. This paper focuses on the in situ observation on ta-C coating in heating process, as well as the effect of gas environments. The in situ observation was conducted by Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) with heating stage in air, N2 and O2. It revealed that the existence of oxygen is an important factor leading to the deterioration of ta-C. Besides, the cross-section observation shows that there two kinds of defects in the coating. These two kinds of defects show different oxidation phenomenon.


DLC coatings for cam follower applications: The role of the surface on tribochemical reactions, friction and wear.
Pages 298-299
MacDonald Ofune, Liuquan Yang, Ardian Morina, Anne Neville
PDF (329 KB)



In this study, the tribological properties of steel, Mn-phosphate, Si doped (S1s), and hydrogenated tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C:H) diamond like carbon (DLC) coatings were investigated in a pin on reciprocating plate tribometer and single cam test rig. S1s and taC-H DLC coating architectures were obtained with plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition technique with hardness 20 ± 4 GPa and 35 ± 7 GPa respectively. All materials had a centre-line average surface roughness (Ra) of 0.02-0.03 µm except for the Mn(PO3)2 which had Ra of 0.30 µm. The S1s showed severe delamination after tests on the reciprocating tribometer while spots of wear flakes were observed in the bench test. Both single cam rig and reciprocating tests have shown similar wear and friction results which can be used to rank materials, surface coatings and lubricants for optimum performance of valve train components.


Hybrid bilayer structure PbTiO3/PVDF-TrFE prepared by spin coating method for capacitor applications.
Pages 300-301
Nurbaya Zainal, M.H. Wahid, Rozana Dahan, Salman A.H. Alrokayan, Haseeb A. Khan, M. Rusop
PDF (497 KB)



Performance of high capacitance density device is the requirement to fabricate the films based capacitor. Thus, the need to have high dielectric ceramic material is quite major factor instead conventional metal oxide material. This study presents the preparation of nano-films lead titanate in various annealing temperature for the fabrication of bilayer structure lead titanate/poly(vinylidene fluoride) trifluoroethylene material combination.


Investigation of ZnO nanotetrapods at different evaporation temperature prepared by thermal-CVD method for OLED applications.
Pages 302-303
N.E.A. Azhar, S.S. Shariffudin, Salman A.H. Alrokayan, Haseeb A. Khan, M. Rusop
PDF (493 KB)



An organic semiconductor have been discovered for various applications such as in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The metal oxides such as zinc oxide (ZnO) provide an interesting alternative for conventional low work function metals as electron injection layer in OLEDs. This study focuses the preparation of ZnO nanotetrapods at different evaporation temperature using thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD). These will provide better performance and suitable for optoelectronic device.


Artificial intelligence technique in solving nano-process parameter optimization problem.
Pages 304-305
M.S. Norlina, M.S. Nor Diyana, P. Mazidah, M. Rusop
PDF (281 KB)



This paper is proposing an Artificial Intelligence (AI) technique in solving the RF magnetron sputtering process parameter optimization problem. RF magnetron sputtering is a physical vapor deposition process which is widely used in the manufacturing of thin films. In this research, the optimization of the sputtering process parameters is to be solved computationally based on gravitational search algorithm (GSA).This study is concentrating on four process parameters of RF magnetron sputtering process, which are RF power, deposition time, oxygen flow rate and substrate temperature. As for the material, zinc oxide (ZnO) has been chosen due to its many significance characteristics. For the validation purpose, GSA performance was compared with particle swarm optimization (PSO). Based on the results, GSA has outperformed PSO in terms of the accuracy of the optimization performance, fitness value and processing time. The results showed that the AI approach in solving this nano-process parameter optimization problem has proven to be promising. This AI approach is expected to improve the trial and error method by reducing the number of experiments to be conducted in the parameter optimization process. The implementation of this computational technique could offer better time management and lower cost consumption in the thin film fabrication process.


Sensing properties of nanostructured zinc oxide-based gas sensor fabricated using immersion method.
Pages 306-307
A.K. Shafura, M.H. Mamat, M. Uzer, A. Shuhaimi, Salman A.H. Alrokayan, Haseeb A. Khan, M. Rusop
PDF (366 KB)



CH4 gas sensor was fabricated using immersion method of the ZnO film. The effect of immersion time on the electrical, structural and sensing properties of the ZnO thin film were investigated. The highest conductivity of 7.80 × 10-3 Scm-1 was obtained for the ZnO thin film prepared at immersion time of 60 min. The sensitivity value also showed the highest value that is 18.2%.


The effect of different molarity on TiO2 solution prepared by sol-gel method.
Pages 308-309
I.H.H. Affendi, M.S.P. Sarah, Salman A.H. Alrokayan, Haseeb A. Khan, M. Rusop
PDF (343 KB)



TiO2 is a well-known material especially for organic solar cell. In this research the objective of this experiment that is to get high current that will improve the electron migration. The nanostructured TiO2 was deposited onto glass substrate using the well-known sol gel spin coating method. In this experiment, eight TiO2 solutions with different molarity were tested for their performance as the electron conductor layer in organic solar cell. The surface topology and morphology of nanostructured TiO2 was observed using the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). The electrical properties were investigated by using two probe current-voltage (I-V) measurements to study the electrical resistivity behavior, hence the conductivity of the film. Based on the result, lower the molarity of TiO2, the surface becomes more uniform and the I-V becomes much better. As predicted, the best thin film characteristic is the 0.01M to be applied in organic solar cell in the future work.


Performance of TiCN and TiAlN coated twist drills.
Pages 310-311
R.J. Talib, S.M. Firdaus, H.M. Ariff
PDF (274 KB)



The high speed steel (HSS) and TiCN and TiAlN coated drills were subjected to drilling tests. Based on test results, it could be concluded that increased in hardness of the coated drill is not the only factor to improve the tool life. Other factors such as the thermal conductivity, friction coefficient and adhesion strength of the coating elements also play important roles in improving the tool life of the drill. Microstructural examination showed that the abrasion, adhesion and thermal wear mechanisms are operated during drilling process.


Correlations for roughness, slope and peak height for bead blasted surfaces.
Pages 312-313
S.M.S. Wahid, C.V. Madhusudana
PDF (406 KB)



This work reports the results of measurements of the topography of 79 rough surfaces. The materials were stainless steel, mild steel, aluminium and copper. The surfaces of the specimens were blasted with particles of different materials at a range of pressures.  It was found that profile heights were generally Gaussian. Simple correlations between measured parameters were developed. Analysis was also conducted of the effect of different cut off lengths. It was confirmed that roughness parameters are not intrinsic properties of the surface, but depend on the cut-off length.


Recent advances in non-contact metrology, high speed measurement, steep slope measurement and correlation with stylus data.
Pages 314-315
M. Conroy, R. Burton, Y. Yu, T. Kumagi
PDF (470 KB)



High speed, large sample analysis of optics and steep sided rough surfaces are all areas of increasing interest in both research and production environments. New designs of components and materials are finding new applications in the microelectronics, optics and automotive industries and their metrology is becoming increasingly important. The paper will cover details of the challenges the above measurements and also some possible solutions.


Electroless Ni-P-Cu-CuO composite coatings on mildsteel with zwitterionic surfactant.
Pages 316-317
R. Muraliraja, R. Elansezhian
PDF (293 KB)



High speed, large sample analysis of optics and steep sided rough surfaces are all areas of increasing interest in both research and production environments. New designs of components and materials are finding new applications in the microelectronics, optics and automotive industries and their metrology is becoming increasingly important. The paper will cover details of the challenges the above measurements and also some possible solutions.


Effects of oil groove location on viscosity profile in hydrodynamic lubrication journal bearing.
Pages 318-319
Mohamad Ali Ahmad, Salmiah Kasolang, Jaharah A. Ghani
PDF (402 KB)



This paper presents an experimental work to determine the effect of oil groove location on viscosity profiles in hydrodynamic lubrication around a journal bearing. The journal bearing test rig was used in this study to characterize the profiles.  A journal of 100mm diameter with a length-to-diameter ratio of 0.5 was used. Measurement of the film viscosity profiles around a journal bearing is based on the ultrasonic reflection technique. The single oil supply groove was set at -300, -150, 00, 150, 300 and 450 positions.


Wear properties of nanoclay filled epoxy polymer.
Pages 320-321
A. Jumahat, A.A.A. Talib, A. Abdullah
PDF (422 KB)



Polymeric material is one of the best materials that are being used in many applications. This is owing to their excellent properties such as low density, good mechanical and good chemical resistance. The main objective of this research is to evaluate the effect of nanoclay on wear properties of epoxy polymer and fibre reinforced composites. The main materials used in this study were high temperature epoxy, hardener and nanoclay. While, woven fiberglass was used as fiber reinforcement in advanced fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composite. The nanocomposites were fabricated using shear mixing system. The testing involved were dry sliding and slurry tests. The results showed that wear properties of pure epoxy system were enhanced when the weight fraction of nanoclay in the system reached up to certain weight percentage. Epoxy system with 3 wt% of nanoclay has higher wear properties when compared to pure, 1 wt% and 5 wt% of nanoclay in epoxy systems.


Tool condition monitoring in milling using sensor fusion technique.
Pages 322-323
S. Shankar, T. Mohanraj
PDF (219 KB)



In this work, the response of sound pressure and cutting force during machining of Hybrid aluminium composite alloy was investigated to predict the condition of multipoint cutting tool. The machining process is carried out for fresh, working and dull tool with optimum parameters. During machining, the sound pressure and cutting force are measured using microphone and Milling tool dynamometer. The response from sensors during machining process was acquired with NI USB 6221 DAQ card and monitored using LabVIEW. The acquired signals are fused together and the fused data given as input to the fuzzy inference system and the output of which is used to assess the condition of the tool.


The effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on bio-lubricant film thickness using ultrasonic reflection.
Pages 324-326
S. Kasolang, N.S. Mohamad, M.A.A. Bakar,  A. Jumahat, N.R. Nik Roselina
PDF (660 KB)



The ability to separate the bearing surfaces from being contact is required in order to avoid from collapsed. Ultrasound has been developed as a technique to determine the thickness of lubricant films. Using quasi-static theoretical model, reflection response from an oil film are determined. In this study, the effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on bio-lubricant film-thickness were investigated. The ultrasonic equipment was used to determine reflection coefficient and subsequently investigate the corresponding film thickness. Based on the results, it was found that corn oil have better film thickness compared to the canola oil. A difference of 13.7%  reduction in the film thickness between corn oil and canola oil was recorded.



The development of ceramic fiber via sacrificial method.
Pages 327-328
M.S. Sharmiwati, Z. Azmiza, S. Fazidah, M.H. Nuraida, H. Roshanizah
PDF (413 KB)



Ceramic fibre for water filter cartridge was designed to create alternative way to replace typical water filter with the aim to produce clear water. Ceramic fibre in this study was produced through sacrificial template method. This paper also studies the linear shrinkage, density and porosity of 50wt% solid loading of porcelain and distilled water with different amount solid loading. Banana pseudostem was immersed in ceramic slurry with solid loading ranging from 300g to 500g.

Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement
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